Flashcards in Arthropods II and Echinoderms Deck (36)
What phylum, sub-phylum, class, and order contains the greatest number of DESCRIBED species?
Phylum - Arthropoda
Sub-Phylum - Hexapoda
Class - Insecta
Order - Coleoptera (beetles)
What kinds of interactions do Subphylum Hexapoda have with humans?
-pollination of crops
-eat crops and disease vectors
What are the defining characteristics of Subphylum Hexapoda?
-Head, thorax, abdomen
6 walking appendages
Respiration with tracheids
Excretion with Malpighian tubules
Subphylum Hexapoda, Class Insecta are found in terrestrial habitats and shallow water aquatic habitats. Why are they not found in deep water?
Because of how they breathe
What is the biggest evolutionary advance of Sub-phylum Hexapoda, Class Insecta?
-Wings an outgrowth of thoracic exoskeleton body wall
-Not an appendage
Why do insecta have such great feeding adaptability?
Due to modification of mandibles for different types of feeding (chewing, sucking, etc)
What is the external body plan of Sub-phylum Hexapoda, Class Insecta?
-Head, Thorax, Abdomen
How do Sub-phylum Hexapoda, Class Insecta accomplish respiration?
Tracheids and spiracles for breathing air
-suck in air through spiracles (like lungs that cover exoskeleton)
-oxygen goes through tracheids to muscle
Why won't Sub-phylum Hexapoda, Class Insecta get very big?
Due to the way the respire, they won't be able to enough oxygen to the core of body
How do Sub-phylum Hexapoda, Class Insecta accomplish excretion?
Suck uric acid thorugh gut lumen using malpighian tubules
-poop out the uric acid (the metabolic waste)
How do Sub-phylum Hexapoda, Class Insecta accomplish flight?
Wings stable in two conformations. Muscles only have to provide small amount of force and exoskeleton will flip wing to other conformation.
-Dorsal ventral muscles contract and pull wings up
-Longitudinal thoracic muscles contract and pull wings down
-Very fast and efficient (up to 86%)
What sex are worker insects and drones?
worker insect - always female
drone - always male
How do queens control what sex will be born?
The diploid (2n) queen can choose:
1) to lay unfertilized egg which will be male drone (1n)
2) to be impregnated by male drone to produce fertilized egg which will be female worker (2n)
What is Eusocial behavior in insects dependent upon?
Haplodiploid sex determination
In haplodiploid insects, what is the percentages of relatedness of sisters produced by female ant workers? Brothers?
Sisters - 75%
Brothers - 25%
What kind of life history do the MOST DERIVED insects display?
Holometabolous life history
-Egg to Maggot to Pupa to Adult
-Buttferly makes egg, which turn into caterpillar larvae, which turn into a pupa (non-dispersive stage), which grow into adult buttterfly
Are insects protostomes or deuterostomes?
What kind of circulatory system to insects have?
What superphylum do Echinoderms belong to?
Deuterostomia (radial cleavage - anus before mouth)
What kind of symmetry do Echinoderms exhibit?
Pentaradial symmetry as adults
How do echinoderms move and breathe?
Water Vascular System and podia (tube feet)
What is unique about echinoderm endoskeleton?
Mutable collagenous tissue allows endoskeleton to function like a exoskeleton
What are the pedicellaria on echinoderms?
Defensive spines and pincers
What are the classes of echinoderms?
Crinoidea - filter feeders
Holothuroidea - deposit feeders (sea cucumnbers)
Echinoidea - grazers (sea urchins)
Asteroidea - predators (sea stars)
Ophiuroidea - filter feeders
What is the body plan of echinoderms?
Water Vascular System
Water moves between tube feet (podia) and internal ampulla as muscles in each move water between the two
Muscles in suction cups of tube feet contract to provide attachment
What do echinodermata class asteroidea use the pedicellaria for?
to bite the tube feet of other echinoderm predators
What is found in the echinoderm body wall?
Papula (dermal gill) which enhances respiration
What is the perivisceral coelom, what two structures are found there?
2nd coelomic cavity
1) Water vascular system
What systems do echinoderms lack?
No blood vascular, excretory, or respiratory systems
-water vascular system instead