Arthropods II and Echinoderms Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Arthropods II and Echinoderms Deck (36)
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1

What phylum, sub-phylum, class, and order contains the greatest number of DESCRIBED species?

Phylum - Arthropoda
Sub-Phylum - Hexapoda
Class - Insecta
Order - Coleoptera (beetles)

2

What kinds of interactions do Subphylum Hexapoda have with humans?

Positive Interactions
-pollination of crops

Negative Interactions
-eat crops and disease vectors

3

What are the defining characteristics of Subphylum Hexapoda?

3 tagmata
-Head, thorax, abdomen

6 walking appendages

Mandibles present

Uniramous appendages

Respiration with tracheids

Excretion with Malpighian tubules

4

Subphylum Hexapoda, Class Insecta are found in terrestrial habitats and shallow water aquatic habitats. Why are they not found in deep water?

Because of how they breathe

5

What is the biggest evolutionary advance of Sub-phylum Hexapoda, Class Insecta?

Insect flight!
-Wings an outgrowth of thoracic exoskeleton body wall
-Not an appendage

6

Why do insecta have such great feeding adaptability?

Due to modification of mandibles for different types of feeding (chewing, sucking, etc)

7

What is the external body plan of Sub-phylum Hexapoda, Class Insecta?

Tagmatization
-Head, Thorax, Abdomen

8

How do Sub-phylum Hexapoda, Class Insecta accomplish respiration?

Tracheids and spiracles for breathing air
-suck in air through spiracles (like lungs that cover exoskeleton)
-oxygen goes through tracheids to muscle

9

Why won't Sub-phylum Hexapoda, Class Insecta get very big?

Due to the way the respire, they won't be able to enough oxygen to the core of body

10

How do Sub-phylum Hexapoda, Class Insecta accomplish excretion?

Suck uric acid thorugh gut lumen using malpighian tubules
-poop out the uric acid (the metabolic waste)

11

How do Sub-phylum Hexapoda, Class Insecta accomplish flight?

Wings stable in two conformations. Muscles only have to provide small amount of force and exoskeleton will flip wing to other conformation.
-Dorsal ventral muscles contract and pull wings up
-Longitudinal thoracic muscles contract and pull wings down
-Very fast and efficient (up to 86%)

12

What sex are worker insects and drones?

worker insect - always female

drone - always male

13

How do queens control what sex will be born?

The diploid (2n) queen can choose:
1) to lay unfertilized egg which will be male drone (1n)
2) to be impregnated by male drone to produce fertilized egg which will be female worker (2n)

14

What is Eusocial behavior in insects dependent upon?

Haplodiploid sex determination

15

In haplodiploid insects, what is the percentages of relatedness of sisters produced by female ant workers? Brothers?

Sisters - 75%
Brothers - 25%

16

What kind of life history do the MOST DERIVED insects display?

Holometabolous life history
-Egg to Maggot to Pupa to Adult
-Buttferly makes egg, which turn into caterpillar larvae, which turn into a pupa (non-dispersive stage), which grow into adult buttterfly

17

Are insects protostomes or deuterostomes?

protostomes

18

What kind of circulatory system to insects have?

open

19

What superphylum do Echinoderms belong to?

Deuterostomia (radial cleavage - anus before mouth)

20

What kind of symmetry do Echinoderms exhibit?

Pentaradial symmetry as adults

21

How do echinoderms move and breathe?

Water Vascular System and podia (tube feet)

22

What is unique about echinoderm endoskeleton?

Mutable collagenous tissue allows endoskeleton to function like a exoskeleton

23

What are the pedicellaria on echinoderms?

Defensive spines and pincers

24

What are the classes of echinoderms?

Crinoidea - filter feeders
Holothuroidea - deposit feeders (sea cucumnbers)
Echinoidea - grazers (sea urchins)
Asteroidea - predators (sea stars)
Ophiuroidea - filter feeders

25

What is the body plan of echinoderms?

Water Vascular System
-Hydraulic system

Water moves between tube feet (podia) and internal ampulla as muscles in each move water between the two

Muscles in suction cups of tube feet contract to provide attachment

26

What do echinodermata class asteroidea use the pedicellaria for?

to bite the tube feet of other echinoderm predators

27

What is found in the echinoderm body wall?

Papula (dermal gill) which enhances respiration

Ossicles

28

What is the perivisceral coelom, what two structures are found there?

2nd coelomic cavity

1) Water vascular system
2) gonad

29

What systems do echinoderms lack?

No blood vascular, excretory, or respiratory systems
-water vascular system instead

30

What are the two sections of the echinoderm stomach?

Cardiac stomach and plyoric stomach