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Flashcards in Articular System Deck (60):
1

Three types of joints

Fibrous
Carilagenous
Synovial

2

Describe Fibrous joints

Simple
Two bones knitted together
No joint cavity
Allows for little movement

3

Three types of fibrous joints

Sutures
Syndesmosis
Gomphosis

4

Describe sutures

Type of fibrous joint
B/w bones of the skull
Not mobile --> DO allow for growth though

5

Describe Syndesmosis

Type of fibrous joint
Holds distal ends of tibia and fibula
Small amount of movement

6

Describe Gomphosis

Type of fibrous joint
Tooth sockets

7

What is gomphosis lined with

Periodontal membrane

8

Describe cartilagenous joints

Solid
No joint cavity

9

What are the 2 types of carilagenous joints

Primary
Secondary

10

Describe primary cartilagenous joints

2 areas of bone bridged by hyaline
No movement
Eg. Ep. plate
Only found in development

11

Describe secondary cartilagenous joints

Thin layer of hyaline that covers articular surface
thick fibrocartilage b/w
Restricted movement
midline of body

12

Describe synovial joints

Majority
Extensive movement
Found limbs and girdles

13

Describe all joints --> movement

Fibrous -> least
Cartilagenous -> middle
Synovial -> most

14

Types of synovial joints

Uniaxial
Biaciaxial
Multiaxial

15

Uniaxial synovial joints

1 plane
Either hing or pivot

16

Eg of hinge synovial joint

Elbow

17

Types of biaxial synovial joints

Condylar
Ellipsode
Saddle

18

Eg of condylar synovial joint

Fingers and joints

19

Eg of ellipsoid biax joint

Wrist

20

Eg of saddle biax joint

Thumb

21

Eg of Multiaxial synov joint

Ball and socket --> shoulder and hib

22

The different types of surfaces found on synovial joints include

Simple
Compound
Complex

23

Simple surface of synovial joint is

1 pair of surface

24

Compound surface of synovial joint

more than 1 pair
Eg. elbow

25

Complex surface of synovial joint

Subdivided into more than 1 compartment by either incomplete miniski or fibrocartilagenous disks

26

What do complex surfact synovial joints allow ofr

Separate movement

27

Where is the fibrous capsule found

Surrounds the whole joint

28

What is the roles of the fibrous capsule

Joins bones together

29

Labrum

fibrous cartilage surrounding the ends of the scapula
Avascular
Deepens the socet in ball

30

Bursae

Reduce friction - cushions
Dbl layer of synovial membrane with synovial fluid
Found between bones and tendons or muscles
May communicate with joint cavity

31

Fat pads

Space filler
Intracapsular
Vascular and neural
Extrasynovial

32

Hiltons Law

Nerves that supply muscles that move a joint will supply that same joint

33

Intracapsular tendon

Shoulder and knee joints
Covered in synovial membrane
Stabilises joint

34

Disks and menisci

Fibrocartilagenous
Increase movement
Resist compression
Weight bearing
Recieves blood and nerve supple at periphery

35

Articular cartilage

Found on the surface of the bones of joints
Hyaline

36

Function of hyaline cartilage

Shock absorption
Minimize friction
Survive prolonged preusse

37

Function of synovial fluid

Nutrient for cartilage
Lubricant

38

Cells found in the sinovial membrane

Mesophelium

39

Differences between tendon and ligament

Tendon -> bone to muscle
Ligament -> bone to bone

40

Ligaments are made of

Collagen

41

Three types of ligaments are

Intrinsic
Extrinsic
Accessory

42

Describe the role of intrinsic ligaments

Reinforce capsule

43

Where are extrinsic ligaments found

Separate from the capsule

44

Where are accessory ligaments found

Located at a distance

45

What type of ligaments are more stable

Closed packed position ligaments -> very taught and surfaces are closely opposed

46

Describe hyaline cartilage appearance

Glossy, almost translucent, blue tinge

47

Describe structure of hyaline cartilage

Densely packed, parallel collagen fibers

48

Describe fibrocartilage

Mixture of cartilage and fibrous tissue
Strong and stiff
Dense, irregular collagen fibres

49

What are the three types of ligament injuries and describe them

Type 1 -> min disruption of fibres
Type 2 -> 50% disruptive
Type 3 -> complete rupture

50

Define: Avulsion Rupture

Ligament tears and takes some bone with it

51

What skeleton (axial or appendicular) are joints found on?

All 3 types are found in the axial skeleton

52

Articulations in the appendicular skeleton are mostly?

Synovial

53

synchondrosis

Primary Cartilaginous Joint

54

symphysis

Secondary Cartilaginous

55

Abduction and adduction are in what plane?

Coronal

56

Coronal plane is?

Frontal plane

57

flexion and extension occur in what plane?

sagittal plane

58

neuropathic arthropathy

Chronic severe loss of joint sensation typically leading to destruction of the joint

59

A dislocation injury is ?

when the proximity of articular surfaces is lost due to displacement.

60

Define subluxation

partial or incomplete dislocation