AS Chemistry: Unit 1, Module 5, Introduction to organic chemistry Flashcards Preview

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Organic chemistry

Chemistry of compounds containing carbon

1

Naturally occurring

Carbohydrates, fats, proteins

2

Synthetic

Plastics, medicines, dyes

3

Bonds on a carbon

4

4

Bonds on hydrogen

1

5

Bonds on oxygen

2

6

Bonds on nitrogen

3

7

Bonds on halogens

1

8

Aliphatic compounds

Open chain of carbon atoms

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Alycyclic compounds

Closed ring of carbon atoms

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Aromatic compound

Closed ring of carbon atom that contains a benzene ring

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Hydrocarbons

Contain carbon and hydrogen atoms only

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What bonds do Alkanes have?

Carbon to Carbon single bonds only

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What does saturated mean

Contains only carbon to carbon single bonds

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What is the general formula for Alkanes?

CnH2n+2

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Methane

CH₄

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Ethane

C₂H₆

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Propane

C₃H₈

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Butane

C₄H₁₀

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Pentane

C₅H₁₂

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Hexane

C₆H₁₄

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Alkyle group of Methane (name and formula)

Methyl CH₃

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Alkyle group of Ethane (name and formula)

Ethyl C₂H₅

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Alkyle group of Propane (name and formula)

Prophyl C₃H₇

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Alkyle group of Butane (name and formula)

Buthyl C₄H₉

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Alkyle group of Pentane (name and formula)

Penthyl C₅H₁₁

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Alkyle group of Hexane (name and formula)

Hexhyl C₆H₁₃

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Homologous series

A family of molecules which all contain the same functional group, but an increasing number of carbon atoms. They have the same chemical properties and a graduation in physical properties.

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Empirical formula

The simplest ratio of atoms of each element in a compound.

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Molecular formula

The actual number of atoms of each element present in a molecule.

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Structural formula

Shows the arrangement of atoms in a molecule in a simplified form. (no bonds shown).

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Displayed formula

Shows how the atoms are arranged in space (every atom and bond is shown).

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Skeletal formula

Shows the carbon skeleton only, at every bend is a carbon atom with the correct number of hydrogen atoms.

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Structural isomers

Compounds with the same molecular formula but different structures.

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Functional group

An atom or group of atoms which, when present in different molecules, cause them to have similar chemical properties.

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what is the general formula for alkanes?

CnH2n+2

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What is the suffix of an alkane?

-ane

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What is the functional group for alkanes?

It does not have one.

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Why do alkanes not have a functional group?

They are the parent hydrocarbon.

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An example of an alkane.

Ethane C₂H₆

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What is the general formula for alkenes?

CnH2n

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What is the suffix of an alkene?

-ene

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What is the functional group of an alkene?

Carbon double bond. (C=C)

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An example of an alkene.

Ethene C₂H₄

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What is the general formula for haloalkanes?

CnH2n+1X (X=Halogen)

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What is the prefix of an haloalkane?

Halo-

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What is the functional group of a haloalkane?

A halogen atom (-F, -Cl, -Br, -I)

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An example of a haloalkane.

Chloroethane CH₃CH₂Cl

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What are the 2 types of isomerism?

Structural isomerism and stereoisomerism.

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Structural isomerism.

Compounds with the same molecular formula, but with a different structural formula.

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What are the 3 types of structural isomerism?

Chain,
Position,
functional group.

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When does chain isomerism occur?

When there is two or more ways of arranging the carbon skeleton of a molecule.

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How many isomers are there if there is only 1 carbon atom?

1

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How many isomers are there if there is only 2 carbon atom?

1

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How many isomers are there if there is only 3 carbon atom?

1

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How many isomers are there if there is only 4 carbon atom?

2

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How many isomers are there if there is only 5 carbon atom?

3

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How many isomers are there if there is only 6 carbon atom?

5

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What is position isomerism?

When the molecule has the same carbon skeleton and the same functional group, but the functional group is joined at different places on the carbon skeleton.

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What is functional group isomerism?

When the molecule has a different functional group and therefore has different chemical properties.