AS RESEARCH METHODS- observational studies-case study - correlation Flashcards Preview

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what are the 2 types of observations?

naturalistic and controlled observation


what is a naturalistic observation?

observe p in a natural environment no manipulation of any environement


advantages of naturalistic observation?

can discover new facts about natural b
high ecological validity


disadvantages of naturalistic observation?

no control over ev
observer bias (expectations of observer influence results)


what is a controlled observation?

observe p in a controlled environment e.g strange situation


advantages of controlled observation?

can manipulate variables to observe effects


disadvantages of controlled observation?

reduced ecological validity
observer bias


what is overt observation?

p is aware being observed. consequently alter behaviour reducing validity of study


what is a covert observation?

observations are made without p's knowledge. this may be ethical issues regarding invasion of privacy


what is a structured observation?

observer uses behavioural categories to record observations they could be a behaviour checklist or coding system


what is an unstructured observation?

observer records all relevant behaviours that are seen but has no system this may be because the behaviour to be studied is unpredictable


what is a participant observation?

requires researcher t take part in sit being studied


what is a non participant observation?

occurs when the researcher observes b from outside of sit


what are the types of sampling procedures in observations?

event sampling and time sampling


what is event sampling?

a count is kept of number of times a certain b occurs with a given space of time


what is time sampling?

behaviour is recorded at certain intervals p displaying er 30 secs


how to improve reliability of observations?

inter rater reliability


what is inter rater reliability?

extent to which there is agreement btw 2 or more observers. assessed by correlating observations of 2 or more observers. correlation should be more than 0.8 to show high reliability. if low it could be improved by training observers in using behavioural categories


what are behavioural categories?

specific type of behaviour which is defined before study takes place


what is a case study?

gather in depth info on an individ or small group of people


advantages of case study?

long period of time= lots of detail supported with lots of evidence


disadvantage of case study?

cant be generalised and unreliable-old stuff


what is a correlation?

2 measurements taken from same group of p. rels btw 2 co variables is determined. neither variable is manioulated so no iv/dv.


advantages of correlation?

1.used when variables cannot be manipulated for ethical or practical reasons
2. use large data sets easily replicated
3. give precise info on degree of relationship btw variables
4. strong corr may suggest ideas for experiments to determine cause & effect


disadvantages of correlation?

1. cannot draw conclusions about cause & effect as intervening variables may be involved
2. subject t any probs with method e.g how data collected


difference btw correlation and experiment?

experiment iv manipulated correlation 2 variablea are just measured and experiment has iv and dv whilst correlation has 2 variables but no iv or dv