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Flashcards in ASIA 164 Deck (15):
1

ghazal

a category of qawwali that sounds secular on the surface. Music of Pakistan (sufism)--subject matter is usually illicit unattainable love--a love that if reached will bring satisfaction to the soul. Consists of rhyming couplets and a refrain. Most can be viewed in spiritual context

2

dhrupad

performed by a solo singer or a small number of singers accompanied by mridang rather than tabla. also usually two tanpura accompaniment. Preceded by VERY long, elaborate alap that is sung using a set of syllables thought to be derived from a mantra

3

riaz

defined as practicing

4

tayyari

defined as preparation

5

sadhana

spirituality of the journey

6

bhava

expression of emotion

7

thumri

The text is romantic or devotional in nature, and usually revolves around a girl's love for Krishna. Semiclassical, does not contain couplets

8

jor and jhala in dhrupad

jor--steady rhythm
jhala--accelerated strumming

9

bhajan

A Bhajan is any type of devotional song. It has no fixed form: it may be as simple as a mantra or kirtan or as sophisticated as the dhrupad or kriti with music based on classical ragas and talas. It is normally lyrical, expressing love for the Divine.

10

qawwali

a form of Sufi devotional music popular in South Asia. The poetry is implicitly understood to be spiritual in its meaning, even though the lyrics can sometimes sound wildly secular, or outright hedonistic. The central themes of qawwali are love, devotion and longing (of man for the Divine). Qawwalis tend to begin gently and build steadily to a very high energy level in order to induce hypnotic states both among the musicians and within the audience.

11

pertinentisation

process enabling one to assign any trait (instrument, form, rhythm) to a music tradition, culture, etc.---new element is made pertinent to the new context (think of British bhangra diaspora example--features from both)

12

how has performance practice changed in the last 100 years?

~patronage switch from elite to television and radio
~concerts open to the public become a thing (paying for a ticket to a concert was unheard of before); have gone down in price bc of wide access to music
~pedagogy--used to be a close guru-apprentice relationship, but now apprentice pats for lessons putting guru at mercy of what the apprentice wants to learn; it is now a profitable enterprise

13

khyal

genre of classical singing in N. India considered more flexible and therefore more room for improvisation

14

bhangra

popular music associated with Punjabi culture. It was developed in Britain in the 1980s by first and second generation immigrants from the Punjab region of India andPakistan forming the Punjabi diaspora, drawing from music and song of the Punjab region as well as various Western musical styles. It is seen by some in the West as an expression of South Asian culture as a whole.

15

Bauls

Heterogeneous group of Hindus or Sufi Muslims that reject organized/institutionalized religion. Folk music represents a long heritage of preaching mysticism through songs in Bengal. Their lyrics intertwine a deep sense of mysticism, a longing for oneness with the divine. common instrument is ektara (one stringed plucked drum drone instrument)