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Flashcards in Assessment Deck (19)
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1

What is upper right quadrant tenderness that worsens with inspiration know as and what does it indicate?

Murphy sign.

Indicates presence of gallstones and cholecystitis.

2

How is pulse pressure calculated and what could it indicate?

systolic - diastolic = pulse pressure.
Normal is 30-40 mm Hg.
If low, may indicate low stroke volume or increased peripheral vascular resistance.
Narrowing may indicate shock or cardiac tamponade.

3

What is Cushing's triad?

Hypertension with widening pulse pressure, bradycardia, and irregular breathing pattern.

Indicates increased cerebral pressure (ICP).

4

What is palpation in the Left Lower Quadrant that elicits pain in the Right Lower Quadrant called and what might it indicate?

Rovsing sign.

May indicate appendicitis.

5

Normal changes to nails with aging include the development of striation and a change in color (yellowish tint) are related to?

Overly thick nails with or that have lines running parallel to the finger often suggest what?

Striation and yellowish tint = reduction in body calcium.

Thick with lines = fungal infection.

6

DCAP-BTLS

deformities, contusions, abrasions, punctures

Burns, tenderness, lacerations, swelling

7

Conjugate gaze?

Anisocoria?

Refers to bilateral eyes focusing in the same direction; such as having the pt follow a pen light to see if they track.

Anisocoria refers to condition which pupils that are unequal in size.

8

What do a pt's pupils look like if they have extensive ICP and are herniating?

Unilateral dilation may be a sign of brain herniation.

9

What can a carotid massage stimulate and in what treatment may it be used for initially?

Carotid massage may cause vagal stimulation.

It can be tried in an SVT pt prior to meds.

10

What is the single most reliable indicator of spinal cord injury when assessing the cervical spine?

Pain elicited on palpation which should prompt immediate
c-collar application.

11

Regarding the cardiovascular system, what is serious hypotension with sustained or progressive tachycardia common in?

Cardiogenic Shock

12

In older adults, the most common adverse reactions to medications are what? (5)

Confusion
Sedation
Loss of balance
Nausea
Electrolyte abnormalities

13

What is the 2nd leading cause of preventable death in the US (behind tobacco use)?

Obesity

14

Pt's with underlying pulmonary disease such as COPD, asthma, or pulmonary edema are at high risk of hypoxia when what drops during air transport?

Why may pt's who have sinus infections experience severe sinus pressure or pain during flight, or why may epistaxis occur?

Barometric pressure.

Diminished barometric pressure during flight reduces the PaO2 in the alveoli, reducing blood oxygen saturation.

Gasses trapped in the sinus cavity expand during flight or increased altitude.

15

The lung tissue consists of the entire mass of tissue (parenchyma) that includes 3 things?

Smaller bronchi, bronchioles, alveoli.

16

What 2 things hold the alveoli open?

Alveoli are held open and in position by connective tissue in the interstitial tissues that surround the alveoli as well as a chemical surfactant that coats the inner walls of the alveoli.

Surfactant acts like soap, reducing surface tension and providing an interface between oil and water so the alveoli will not readily collapse on exhalation.

17

When does atelectasis occur secondary to?

One way to reverse it?

Risk factor for what?

Shallow breathing, infection, trauma, inflammation.

Reversed with sigh or yawn.

Pneumonia.

18

What causes the yellow-green sputum in pt's with certain kinds of respiratory infections?

White blood cells that enter the alveoli or bronchioles by physically squeezing between the cell borders.

19

Why do pt's with chronic bronchitis have polycythemia?

Due to the decreased O2 levels, pt's produce more red blood cells as a response (erythropoietin).

This disorder increases the risk of forming blood clots.