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1

Reconstruct the arguments
paying close attention to the wording of your premises and conclusions. State the pattern of each
argument.All parents should read to their children frequently. David is a father. It follows that he should read to his
children often.

1. All parents should read to their children frequently.
2. David is a parent.
3. David should read to his children frequently.
1. All As are Bs.
2. x is an A.
3. x is a B.

2

Reconstruct the arguments
paying close attention to the wording of your premises and conclusions. State the pattern of each
argument.Elected officials are not permitted to get large fees for giving speeches. Rob is the mayor. So he is not
allowed to charge a lot for giving a speech.

1. All elected officials are not permitted to get large fees for giving speeches.
2. Rob is an elected official.
3. Rob is not permitted to get large fees for giving speeches.
1. All As are Bs.
2. x is an A.
3. x is a B.

3

Reconstruct the arguments
paying close attention to the wording of your premises and conclusions. State the pattern of each
argument. All new mountain bikes have fat tires. Greg has a new bike. So it has fat tires.

1. All new mountain bikes have fat tires.
2. Greg’s bike is a mountain bike.
3. Greg’s bike is new.
4. Greg’s bike has fat tires.
1. All ABs are Cs.
2. x is an A.
3. x is a B.
4. x is a C.

4

Reconstruct the arguments
paying close attention to the wording of your premises and conclusions. State the pattern of each
argument. Most wealthy people own yachts. Donald is a multimillionaire. Therefore he owns a yacht.

1. Most multimillionaires own yachts.
2. Donald is a multimillionaire.
3. Donald owns a yacht.
1. Most As are Bs.
2. x is an A.
3. x is a B.

5

Reconstruct the arguments
paying close attention to the wording of your premises and conclusions. State the pattern of each
argument. Almost all the male news reporters on TV are good looking guys with blow‐dried hair. Kent Brockman
is a reporter for Channel 6.

1. Almost all the male news reporters on TV are good looking guys with blow‐dried hair.
2. Kent Brockman is a male news reporter on TV.
3. Kent Brockman is a good looking guy with blow‐dried hair.
1. Almost all As are Bs.
2. x is an A.
3. x is a B.

6

1. If Jones is a student, then Jones studies hard.
2. Jones studies hard.

1. If Jones is a student, then Jones studies hard.
2. Jones is a student
3. Jones studies hard.
Affirming the antecedent

7

1. All students are eligible to vote.
2. Smith is not a student.

1. All students are eligible to vote.
2. Smith is not eligible to vote.
3. Smith is not a student.
1. All As are Bs.
2. x is not a B.
3. x is not an A.

8

1. Most famous actors are wealthy.
2. Johnny Depp is famous.
3. Johnny Depp is wealthy.

1. Most famous actors are wealthy.
2. Johnny Depp is an actor.
3. Johnny Depp is famous.
4. Johnny Depp is wealthy.
1. Most AB are C.
2. x is an A.
3. x is a B.
4. x is a C.

9

1. You can't judge a book by its cover.
2. You can't judge Clear Thinking in a Blurry World by its cover.

1. All books are things you can’t judge by its cover
2. Clear Thinking in a Blurry World is a book.
3. Clear Thinking in a Blurry World is a thing you can’t judge by its cover.
1. All As are Bs.
2. x is an A.
3. x is a B.

10

1. If you watch the movie, then you'll be up very late.
2. If you don't get enough sleep, you'll be grouchy tomorrow.
3. If you watch the movie, then you'll be grouchy tomorrow.

1. If you watch the movie, then you'll be up very late.
2. If you don't get enough sleep, you'll be grouchy tomorrow.
3. If you’re up very late, you won’t get enough sleep.
4. If you watch the movie, then you'll be grouchy tomorrow.
1. If P then Q.
2. If R then S.
3. If Q then R.
4. If P then S.

11

1. All monkeys are mammals. (EP)
2. All mammals eat meat. (EP)
3. All monkeys eat meat.

1. All monkeys are mammals. (EP)
2. All mammals eat meat. (EP)
3. All monkeys eat meat. (1,2)

12

1. If it snows and you drive too fast, then you will get into an accident. (EP)
2. If the barometer falls, then it will snow. (EP)
3. The barometer will fall. (EP)
4. It will snow.
5. You will drive too fast. (EP)
6. You will get into an accident.

1. If it snows and you drive too fast, then you will get into an accident. (EP)
2. If the barometer falls, then it will snow. (EP)
3. The barometer will fall. (EP)
4. It will snow. (2,3)
5. You will drive too fast. (EP)
6. You will get into an accident. (1,4,5)

13

1. Either the American League team will win or the National League team will win. (EP)
2. If the Yankees play, then the American League team will not win. (EP)
3. The Yankees will play. (EP)
4. The American League team will not win.
5. The National League team will win.

1. Either the American League team will win or the National League team will win.
(EP)
2. If the Yankees play, then the American League team will not win. (EP)
3. The Yankees will play. (EP)
4. The American League team will not win. (2,3)
5. The National League team will win. (1,4)

14

1. If an argument is strong, then it has justified premises. (EP)
2. Argument X is strong. (EP)
3. If Argument X has justified premises, then Jones has made a serious mistake. (EP)
4. Argument X has justified premises.
5. Jones has made a serious mistake.

1. If an argument is strong, then it has justified premises. (EP)
2. Argument X is strong. (EP)
3. If Argument X has justified premises, then Jones has made a serious mistake. (EP)
4. Argument X has justified premises. (1,2)
5. Jones has made a serious mistake. (3,4)

15

1. All members of the debate team have fun.
2. Anyone who works too hard won't have any fun.
3. Jones is a member of the debate team.
4. Jones has fun.
5. Jones does not work too hard.

1. All members of the debate team have fun. (EP)
2. Anyone who works too hard won't have any fun.(EP)
3. Jones is a member of the debate team.(EP)
4. Jones has fun. (1,3)
5. Jones does not work too hard. (2,4)

16

1. Either the Prime Minister is at 24 Sussex Drive or he is on vacation.
2. The Prime Minister is not working.
3. If the Prime Minister is at the 24 Sussex Drive, then he is working.
4. The Prime Minister is not at 24 Sussex Drive.
5. The Prime Minister is on vacation.

1. Either the Prime Minister is at 24 Sussex Drive or he is on vacation. (EP)
2. The Prime Minister is not working. (EP)
3. If the Prime Minister is at the 24 Sussex Drive, then he is working. (EP)
4. The Prime Minister is not at 24 Sussex Drive. (2,3)
5. The Prime Minister is on vacation. (1,4)

17

a) All arguments with unnecessary premises are ill-formed.

False

18

b) If you find an unnecessary premise in an argument, you should always revise the argument by eliminating that premise.

False

19

c) Any premise of an argument that does not appear in the justification for the conclusion of the argument is an unnecessary premise.

False

20

1. All students are eligible to vote.
2. No faculty member is eligible to vote.
3. Professor Laverty is a faculty member.
4. Professor Laverty is not eligible to vote.

1. All students are eligible to vote. (EP)
2. No faculty member is eligible to vote. (EP)
3. Professor Laverty is a faculty member. (EP)
4. Professor Laverty is not eligible to vote. (2,3)
1. No faculty member is eligible to vote. (EP)
2. Professor Laverty is a faculty member. (EP)
3. Professor Laverty is not eligible to vote. (1,2)
1. No As are Bs.
2. x is an A.
3. x is not a B.

21

1. If you work too hard, then you'll be tired.
2. If you play too hard, then you'll be tired.
3. You will work too hard.
4. You will be tired.

1. If you work too hard, then you'll be tired. (EP)
2. If you play too hard, then you'll be tired. (EP)
3. You will work too hard. (EP)
4. You will be tired.(1,3)
1. If you work too hard, then you'll be tired. (EP)
2. You will work too hard. (EP)
3. You will be tired. (1,2)
Affirming the antecedent

22

a) Some people say that watching violent TV programs causes people to behave violently themselves. I don't think that they are right. My nephew watches lots of violent programs, but he never behaves violently. The opponents of these shows probably just don't want to admit that they like them themselves.

1. My nephew watches lots of violent TV programs. (EP)
2. My nephew never behaves violently. (EP)
3. Some people who watch violent TV programs do not behave violently. (IP)
4. If 3, then 5. (IP)
5. Violent TV programs do not cause people to behave violently. (3,4)