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Flashcards in Assumptions Deck (40)
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1

Beliefs

-held to bee to be true but have not necessarily been proven
Principal that is being accepted as being true based on logic or reason without proof

2

3 types of Assumptions

1. Universal : beliefs assumed to be true. all humans need
2. Derived from a theory : stress causes diseases
3. Specific to a certain state --> evidence of a fit between what the researcher believes can happen and the data produced. … assumptions that prediction is
possible, facts can be verified, testing of theoretical relationships

3

Assumptions are NOT

Not the research question or Hypothesis

4

Limitations Definition

Def uncontrolled variables that may affect study results and limit generalizability of the findings

5

Limitations mentioned could:

Sample deficiencies
Design flaws
Weakness in data collection

6

Bloom's Taxonomy : from BOTTOM to TOP

RUA AEC
Remembering
Understanding
Apply
Analyze
Evaluate
Create

7

Bloom's Taxonomy : Produce New or Original work

CREATE

8

Bloom's Taxonomy : Justify or stand a decision

EVALUATE

9

Bloom's Taxonomy : DRAW connection among ideas

ANALYZE

10

Bloom's Taxonomy : Use information in New situations

APPLY

11

Bloom's Taxonomy : Explain ideas or concepts

UNDERSTAND

12

Bloom's Taxonomy : Recall facts and basic ideas

REMEMBER

13

Bloom's Taxonomy ; define, duplicate, list, memorize

REMEMBER

14

Bloom's Taxonomy : Classify, discuss, explain

UNDERSTAND

15

Levels of evidence from BOTTOM to TOP

Background information/Expert Opinion
Case studies, reports, controlled
Cohort studies
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIALS
Critically Appraised individual Articles
Critically Appraised Topics
Systematic Reviews

16

Parts of FILTERED INFORMATION

Systematic Reviews
Critically Appraised Topics
Critically Appraised individual articles

17

Parts of UNFILTERED INFORMATION

Case studies, reports, case-controlled studies
Cohort studies
Randomized controlled Trials

18

Information that has not been critically appraised is considered

"unfiltered".

19

When searching for evidence-based information, one should select the highest level of evidence possible ________ or ________

systematic reviews or meta-analysis.

20

________, _________ and __________have all gone through an evaluation process: they have been "filtered".

Systematic reviews, meta-analysis, and critically-appraised topics/articles

21

As you move up the pyramid, however, _______ studies are available;

fewer

22

it's important to recognize that high levels of evidence may not exist for your clinical question. If this is the case, you'll need to

move down the pyramid if your quest for resources at the top of the pyramid is unsuccessful.

23

A systematic review that uses quantitative methods to summarize the results.

Meta-Analysis

24

An article in which the authors have systematically searched for, appraised, and summarized all of the medical literature for a specific topic.

Systematic Review

25

Authors of critically-appraised topics evaluate and synthesize multiple research studies.

Critically Appraised Topics

26

Authors of critically-appraised individual articles evaluate and synopsize individual research studies.

Critically Appraised articles

27

Include a randomized group of patients in an experimental group and a control group. These groups are followed up for the variables/outcomes of interest.

RCTs

28

Identifies two groups (cohorts) of patients, one which did receive the exposure of interest, and one which did not, and following these cohorts forward for the outcome of interest.

Cohort study

29

Involves identifying patients who have the outcome of interest (cases) and control patients without the same outcome, and looking to see if they had the exposure of interest.

Case Control study

30

Handbooks, encyclopedias, and textbooks often provide a good foundation or introduction and often include generalized information about a condition. While background information presents a convenient summary, often it takes about three years for this type of literature to be published.

Background Information/ Expert Opinions