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Flashcards in Asthma Deck (10):
1

pathology of atopic asthma

IgE activated mast cells degranulate and secrete histamine, SRSA and PAF onto the bronchus, causing bronchoconstriction

2

V/Q mismatch

abnormal distribution of both ventilation and pulmonary blood flow, with mismatched ratios and altered blood gas concentrations

3

physiology of acute exacerbation

FVC - <50% normal
FEV1 - <30% normal
RV - due to air trapping, may be 400% normal

the patient will feel that the acute attack has ended when FEV1 is 50% predicted and the RV is down to 200%

4

brittle asthma

type 1:
wide PEF variability despite intense therapy

type 2:
sudden severe asthma attacks on a background of apparently well controlled asthma

5

moderate exacerbation

increasing Sx
PEF >50-75% best or predicted
no features of severe asthma

6

acute severe asthma

PEF 33-50% best or predicted
RR >25/min
HR >110bpm
inability to complete sentences in one breath

7

life threatening asthma

silent chest
cyanosis
feeble respiratory effort
bradycardia

PEF <33% best or predicted
SaO2 <92%
PaO2 <8kPa
PaCO2 normal

dysrhythmia
hypotension
exhaustion
confusion
coma

8

near fatal asthma

raised PaCO2
and/or
requiring mechanical ventilation`

9

bronchiectasis

permanent abnormal dilatation of the bronchi and bronchioli caused by recurrent infections

10

clinical signs of bronchiectasis

cough (90%)
daily sputum production (76%)
dyspnoea (72%)
haemoptysis (56%)
recurrent pleurisy