Atelectasis and ARDS - Rao Flashcards Preview

M2 Renal/Respiratory > Atelectasis and ARDS - Rao > Flashcards

Flashcards in Atelectasis and ARDS - Rao Deck (21):
1

What is atelectasis?

When part or all of the lung is collapsed

2

What are the four types of atelectasis?

Resorption
Compression
Neonatal (loss of surfactant)
Contraction

3

What causes resorption atelectasis (general)?

A bronchial becomes obstructed, so air can not flow into the space; lung tissue collapses.

4

What does a resorption atelectasis look like clinically?

fever
ipsilateral tracheal deviation
ipsilateral diaphragm elevation
absent tactile fremitus

5

What causes compression atelectasis?

air or fluid accumulation in the plural cavity which collapses the lung

6

What does compression atelectasis look like clinically?

contralateral traheal deviation
increased tactile fremitus

7

What causes neonatal atelectasis?

loss of surfactant

8

What synthesizes surfactant and what proteins are present?

synthesized by type 2 pneumocytes

contains phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylglycerol, and surfactant proteins

9

What are the surfactant proteins responsible for?

Surfactant proteins A and D contribute to innate immunity

Surfactant proteins B and C contribute to surface tension reduction

10

What hormones control synthesis of surfactant?

cortisol and thyroxine (increase production)
insulin (decrease production)

11

What three things might cause neonatal atelecatasis?

premature birth
maternal diabetes
cesarean section

12

How does neonatal atelectasis differ from compression or resorption atelectasis on histology?

collapsed neonatal alveoli are lined by hyaline membranes

13

What appears on x-ray in neonatal atelectasis?

"ground glass"
no tracheal deviation

14

What causes contraction atelectasis?

global fibrosis of the lungs which prevent full expansion

15

What is acute lung injury?

Any trauma to the epithelial or endothelial lung tissue

this is a VERY GENERAL term and is used more as a pathology for a diagnosis rather than a diagnosis itself

16

What problems result from acute lung injury?

Pulmonary edema
Diffuse Alveolar Damage (ARDS)

17

What are the biggest causes of ARDS?

Sepsis
Diffuse Lung Infections
Gastric aspiration
Lung Trauma

18

What can be seen clinically in ARDS?

Respiratory Acidosis
Hypoxemia that DOESN'T respond to O2 therapy

19

What happens to the lung during ARDS?

-macrophages release cytokines
-neutrophils migrate to the lung
- fibrin forms hyaline membranes
-pneumocytes are damaged
-surfactant deficiency leads to atelectasis

20

What is seen histologically in ARDS?

Hyaline membranes
hyperplastic type 2 pneumocytes

21

What are the three stages of ARDS?

-Edema
-Hyaline membranes
- Inflammation/Fibrosis

Decks in M2 Renal/Respiratory Class (50):