Atherosclerosis Flashcards Preview

Pathology exam 2 > Atherosclerosis > Flashcards

Flashcards in Atherosclerosis Deck (40):
1

differences in cardiovascular disease prevalence

race and gender, as well as environmental factors

2

normal vessel wall composition

intima, media, adventitia

3

intima

endothelium and ECM

4

media

inner/outer elastic lamina, SM, ECM,

5

adventitia

vasa vasorum, CT

6

specialization in blood vessels arose from

functional requirements

7

elastic/large arteries

aorta/brances. Have media with alternating layers. elastic lamina and smooth muscle

8

medium/muscular arteries

smaller aorta branches. mainly SMC, regional flow controlled by the SMC

9

small arteries/arterioles

in CT of organs. Media, regulate flow resistance

10

states of endothelial cells (3)

constitutive activities, endothelial activation, dysfunction

11

constitutive activity

normal functions for homeostasis

12

endothelial activation

response to stimuli - adhesion molecules, cytokines, coag factors: DOES NOT REQUIRE DENUDING

13

endothelial dysfunction

large amount of inducer exposure- hyper coag, ROS, thrombosis

not able to function correctly!

14

smooth muscle cells proliferate under

certain stimuli

15

SMC synthesize what?

ECM collagen, elastin, proteoglycans

16

effect of endothelial injury on SMC

stimulates growth and synthesis in INTIMA (not supposed to be there!) these cells do not contract, leading to stiff lumen

17

arteriosclerosis

hardening of arteries, three types; atherosclerosis, monckeberg arteriosclerosis, arteriolosclerosis

18

atherosclerosis,

lg/med arteries. lipid deposits in tunica intima. Most common

19

monckeberg arteriosclerosis,

calcification of periferial muscular arteries MEDIA. little lumen encroachment . (pipe stem arteries) common in legs of elderly

20

arteriolosclerosis

small, usually related to HTN/DM

21

pathogenesis of arteroosclerisis

chronic inflammation response to injury. lesion progression, lipoproteins, mphage, T lymph

22

stages of arteriosclerosis

intimal cell mass (NO LIPID), fatty streak (foam cells, no flow issues), lipid plaque (atheroma- raised within intimate, fibrous cap- may lead to stenosis

23

clinical complications (4)

rupture/ulceration, hemorrhage into a plaque atheroembolism, aneurysm

24

aneurysm vs disection

dilation vs surfas defects. both have risk of rupture/thrombus.

25

causes of endothelial injury (3)

hemodynamic disturbance, lipids, inflammation

26

hemodynamic disturbance and endothelial injury

turbulent blood flow at OSTIA, branch points, bifurcation, results in plaque and calcification

27

lipids and endothelial injury

plaques are filled with cholesterol

28

inflammation and endothelial injury

macrophages create foam cells, T cells in intima lead to inflammation, measure CRP!

29

principle plaque components

Cells (SM, macrophage, T cell), ECM, lipid (intra and extra)

30

cholesterol plaques

crystallization of cholesterol

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problem with stable plaques

lumen stenosis!

32

critical stenosis

70% fixed occlusion

33

two main causes of AA

atherosclerosis and hypertension (also Marfan, ED)

34

hyaline arteriolosclerosis

small, diabetes and hypertension, walls thicken, lumen narrows> perfusion of organs (Kidney)

35

hyperplastic arteriolosclerosis

severe hypertension, onion skin of arteriole wall, narrowing of lumen

36

intimal cell mass

first step in lesion, SM, ECM, no lipid.

37

stable vessels have

dense cap! but more stenosis!

38

true aneurysm

weakness of ALL THREE LAYERS

39

direction pushes apart layers of?

smooth muscle!

40

aortic aneurysm causes

atherosclerosis, hypertension, Marfan/ED