Flashcards in Attachment Deck (30):
What are the four stages of attachment?
1. Asocial stage (first few weeks)
2. Indiscriminate attachment (2-7 months)
3. Specific attachment (7 months +)
4. Multiple attachments (Up to one year)
Explain the asocial stage.
When the baby has similar behaviours to both humans and objects.
Explain indiscriminate attachment.
The baby does not have a specific attachment but prefers humans to objects. They will happily be comforted by anyone.
Explain specific attachment.
When the baby has formed a specific attachment to one person (usually the mother, 65%). They show anxiety when separated from the main attachment figure, but this is not always the person they've spent the most time with.
Explain multiple attachments.
Occurs shortly after the specific attachment has been formed. In 29% of cases, this occurs after 1 month.
Outline Schaffer and Emerson's research on the stages of attachment.
60 babies from Glasgow (31- M, 29- F)
The babies were visited every month for the first year and then again after 18 months.
Between 25 and 32 weeks, 50% displayed some separation anxiety.
At 40 weeks, 80% had formed a specific attachment and 30% had formed multiple.
Outline Lorenz's study (APFC).
Aim; To determine when imprinting occurs.
Procedure; Lorenz divided a clutch of goose eggs. Half hatched with him and the other half hatched with the mother.
Findings; It was found that the experiment group imprinted on Lorenz while the control group imprinted on the mother. Even when mixed they still followed who they'd imprinted on.
Conclusion; This phenomenon is called imprinting where species who are mobile at birth start following the first moving thing they see. Lorenz found there was a critical period in which imprinting needs to take place, if they don't they will not have a mother figure.
Outline Harlow's experiment (APFC).
Aim; To study the importance of comfort contact in infancy on attachment behaviours.
Procedure; He used two wire surrogates; one that provided comfort and the other provided food.
Findings; The baby monkey went to the cloth surrogate for comfort and when it was scared, regardless of whether it dispensed milk.
Conclusion; This displays that comfort contact was of more importance to the monkeys than food when it came to attachment behaviour.
What is the 'critical period'? (Harlow and Lorenz)
Like Lorenz, Harlow found that there was a critical period for infant monkeys to develop an attachment. Harlow found that infant monkeys had to be introduced to a mother figure within 90 days in order to form an attachment.
What is the learning theory?
A set of theories from the behaviourist approach to psychology that emphasises the role of learning in the development of behaviours. Explanations include classical and operant conditioning.
Define classical conditioning.
Involves learning to associate two stimuli together so that we begin to respond to one the same way as we already respond to the other.
Define operant conditioning.
Involves learning to repeat a behaviour based on the consequences. If the consequence is positive it will be repeated and vice versa.
Outline classical conditioning (Pavlov's dog)
Unconditional stimulus --> Unconditioned response
Neutral stimulus --> No response
Unconditioned + Neutral stimuli --> Unconditioned response
Conditioned stimulus --> Conditioned response
A term used to describe Bowlby's theory. It indicates that one particular attachment is different to all others and of central importance to the child's development.
Define the internal working model.
The mental representations we all carry with us of our attachment to our primary caregiver. They are important in affecting our future relationships because they carry our perceptions of what relationships are like.
Define the critical period (Bowlby).
The time within an attachment must form after which it will be much harder to form an attachment at all.
Finish the acronym;
Internal working model
Explain the term social releasers.
Babies are born with an innate 'cuteness' including smiling and cooing which encourage attention from adults. Their purpose is to activate the adult attachment system.
Explain monotropy. (laws)
Bowlby believed a child's attachment to one particular caregiver is different and more important than others. He believed the more time a baby spent with the primary attachment figure, the better. He had two principles to clarify this;
The law of continuity
The law of accumulated separation
Explain the internal working model.
A mental representation of a relationship with the primary caregiver. It serves as a model of what relationships are like and has a powerful effect on the nature of a child's future relationships.
What was the Strange Situation?
A controlled observation designed to test attachment security. Infants are assessed on their response to playing in an unfamiliar room, being left alone, left with a strangers and being reunited with a caregiver.
Define secure attachment.
The most desirable attachment type, associated with psychologically healthy outcomes. In the SS this is shown by moderate stranger and separation anxiety and ease of comfort at reunion.
Define insecure-resistant attachment.
Characterised by strong attachment and high anxiety. In the SS this is shown by high levels of stranger and separation anxiety and by resistance to be comforted at reunion.
Define insecure-avoidant attachment.
Characterised by low anxiety but weak attachment. In the SS this is shown by low stranger and separation anxiety and little response to reunion.
What are the seven episodes of the Strange Situation procedure?
1. The child is encouraged to explore.
2. A stranger comes in and tries to interact with the child.
3. The caregiver leaves the child and stranger together.
4. The caregiver returns and the stranger leaves.
5. The caregiver leaves the child alone.
6. The stranger returns.
7. The caregiver returns and is reunited with the child.
Define cultural variations.
'Culture' refers to the norms and values that exist within any group of people. Cultural variations are the differences in norms and values that exist between people in different groups. In attachment we are concerned with the differences in the proportion of children of different attachment types.
Define maternal deprivation.
The emotional and intellectual consequences of separation between a child and their mother or surrogate. Bowlby proposed that continuous care from a mother is essential for normal psychological development, and that prolonged separation from this adult causes serious damage to development.
When does maternal deprivation occur?
When a bond that has been formed is broken and an element of care is taken away.
Distress when physically separated for a relatively short period of time from the primary caregiver.