Atypical Cervical Vertebrae: C2/Axis/Epistropheus Flashcards Preview

Spinal Anatomy I - Exam 2 > Atypical Cervical Vertebrae: C2/Axis/Epistropheus > Flashcards

Flashcards in Atypical Cervical Vertebrae: C2/Axis/Epistropheus Deck (36):
1

What names are given to C2?

axis or epistropheus

2

What unique vertebral body modification is characteristic of C2?

the dens or odontoid process

3

How many joint surfaces are present on the odontoid process of C2?

five

4

What joint surfaces are present on the odontoid process of C2?

- facet for fovea dentis
- groove for transverse atlantal ligament
- attachment sites for alar ligaments
- attachment site for the apical-dental ligament

5

Which joint classifications are represented at the odontoid process of C2?

- fibrous (amphiarthrosis) syndesmosis joint
- synovial pivot (diarthrosis trochoid) joint

6

What is the name given to the odontoid process when the facet for the fovea dentis lies above the groove for the transverse atlantal ligament and the attachment sites for the apical-dental and alar ligaments appear to be directed posterior?

lordotic dens

7

What is the name given to the odontoid process when the facet for the fovea dentis lies below the groove for the transverse atlantal ligament and the attachment sites for the apical-dental and alar ligaments appear to be directed anterior?

kyphotic dens

8

What joint surfaces are present at the inferior part of the vertebral body of C2?

- anterior lip
- posterior lip
- right and left lateral grooves
- cancellous bone

9

How many joints are formed by the inferior part of the vertebral body of C2?

five

10

What joint classifications are present at the inferior part of the vertebral body of C2?

- fibrous (amphiarthrosis) syndesmosis
- modified synovial saddle (diarthrosis sellar)
- cartilaginous (amphiarthrosis) symphysis

11

How many joint surfaces are present at the vertebral body of C2?

ten

12

What joint classifications are present at the vertebral body of C2?

- fibrous (amphiarthrosis) syndesmosis
- synovial pivot (diarthrosis trochoid)
- modified synovial saddle (diarthrosis sellar)
- cartilaginous (amphiarthrosis) symphysis

13

What ligaments will attach posteriorly, to the inferior epiphyseal rim of C2?

membrana tectoria and posterior longitudinal ligament

14

What ligament will represent the cranial continuation of the posterior longitudinal ligament?

membrana tectoria

15

What ligament forms the anterior boundary for the spinal canal above C2?

membrana tectoria

16

What ligament forms the anterior boundary for the spinal canal below C2?

posterior longitudinal ligament

17

What lies on the upper surface of the pedicle of C2?

the superior articular process

18

What is the location of the superior vertebral notch of C2?

on the lamina-pedicle junction

19

What attaches to the lamina of C2?

- obliquus capitis inferior
- posterior atlanto-axial ligament
- ligamentum flavum

20

What muscle attaches to the lamina of C2?

obliquus capitis inferior

21

What is the outline of the vertebral foramen of C2?

oval to triangular

22

What is the appearance of the superior articular facets of C2?

they are asymmetrical and slightly convex

23

What is the facet orientation of the superior articular facet of C2?

backward, upward, and lateral (BUL)

24

What is the orientation of the inferior articular facet of C2?

forward, lateral, and down (FoLD)

25

What is the classification of the zygapophyseal joints of C2?

synovial plane (diarthrosis arthrodia) joint

26

What muscle attaches to the articular processes of C2?

longissimus cervicis

27

What osseous parts of the typical cervical transverse process are present at C2?

- costal element
- posterior tubercle
- true transverse process

28

What osseous parts of the typical transverse process are absent at C2?

- anterior tubercle
- costotransverse bar

29

What will be observed in the transverse foramen at C2?

- vertebral artery
- vertebral venous plexus
- postganglionic sympathetic motor nerve fibers

30

What is the gender variation for the transverse diameter of C2?

- males: 57 mm
- females: about 50 mm

31

What muscles attach to the transverse process at C2?

- levator scapulae
- middle scalene
- splenius cervicis
- longissimus cervicis
- intertransversarii

32

Anterior and posterior intertransversarii are first observed at what vertebral couple?

C2 and C3

33

What is the characteristic appearance of the C2 spinous process in humans?

bifid

34

What is the location for palpation of the C2 spinous process of C2?

in the midline, about two inches below the external occipital protuberance

35

What muscles attach to the spinous process of C2?

- rectus capitis posterior major
- obliquus capitis inferior
- spinalis cervicis
- semispinalis cervicis
- multifidis
- rotators
- interspinalis

36

What ligaments attach to the spinous process of C2?

- ligamentum nuchae
- interspinous ligaments