Atypical Cervical Vertebrae: C2/Axis/Epistropheus Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Atypical Cervical Vertebrae: C2/Axis/Epistropheus Deck (25):
1

What names are given to C2?

Axis or epistropheus

2

What unique vertebral body modification is characteristic of C2?

The dens or odontoid process

3

How many joint surfaces are present on the odontoid process of C2?

5

4

What joint surfaces are present on the odontoid process of C2?

Facet for fovea dentis, groove for transverse Atlantal ligament, attachment sites for the alar ligaments, attachment site for the apical-dental ligament

5

What is the name given to the odontoid process when the facet for the fovea dentis lies above the groove for the transverse atlantal ligament and the attachment sites for the apical-dental and alar ligaments appear to be directed posterior?

Lordotic dens

6

What is the name given to the odontoid process when the facet for the fovea dentis lies below the groove for the transverse Atlantal ligament and the attachment sites for the apical-dental and the alar ligaments appear to be directed anterior?

Kyphotic dens

7

What joint surfaces are present at the inferior part of the vertebral boy of C2?

Anterior lip, posterior lip, right and left lateral grooves and cancellous bone

8

How many many joints are formed by the inferior part of the vertebral body of C2?

Fibrous (amphiarthrosis) syndesmosis, modified synovial saddle (diarthrosis sellar) and cartilaginous (amphiarthrosis) symphysis

9

How many joint surfaces are present at the vertebral body of C2?

Ten

10

What joint classifications are present at eh enteral Boyd of C2?

Fibrous (amphiarthrosis) syndesmosis, synovial pivot (diarthrosis Trochiod), modified synovial saddle (diarthrosis Sellar) and cartilaginous (amphiarthrosis) symphysis

11

What ligament forms the anterior boundary for the spinal canal above C2?

Membrane tectoria

12

What ligament forms the anterior boundary for the spinal canal below C2?

Posterior longitudinal ligament

13

What lies on the upper surface of the pedicle of C2?

The superior articular process

14

What is the location of the superior vertebral notch of C2?

On the lamina-pedicle junction

15

What attaches to the lamina of C2?

Obliquus capitis inferior muscle, posterior Atlanto-axial ligament, ligamentum flavum

16

What is the appearance of the superior articular facets of C2?

They are asymmetrical and slightly convex

17

What is the facet orientation of the superior articular facet of C2?

Backward, upward and lateral (BUL)

18

What is the orientation of the inferior articular facets of C2?

Forward, lateral, and down (FoLD)

19

What muscle attaches to the articular processes of C2?

Longissimus cervicis

20

What is the gender variation for the transverse diameter of C2?

Males: 57 mm and females: 50mm

21

What muscles attach to the transverse process of C2?

Levator scapulae, middle scalene, splenius cervicis, longissimus cervicis and intertransversarii

22

What is the characteristic appearance of the C2 spinous process in humans?

Bifid

23

What is the location for palpation of the spinous process of C2?

In the midline, about 2 inches below the external occipital protuberance

24

What muscles attach to the spinous process of C2?

Rectus capitis posterior major, obliquus capitis inferior, spinalis cervicis, semispinalis cervicis, multifidis, rotators and interspinalis muscles

25

What ligaments attach to the spinous process of C2?

Ligamentum nuchae, interspinous ligaments