Flashcards in Atypical Cervical Vertebrae: C2/Axis/Epistropheus Deck (25):
What names are given to C2?
Axis or epistropheus
What unique vertebral body modification is characteristic of C2?
The dens or odontoid process
How many joint surfaces are present on the odontoid process of C2?
What joint surfaces are present on the odontoid process of C2?
Facet for fovea dentis, groove for transverse Atlantal ligament, attachment sites for the alar ligaments, attachment site for the apical-dental ligament
What is the name given to the odontoid process when the facet for the fovea dentis lies above the groove for the transverse atlantal ligament and the attachment sites for the apical-dental and alar ligaments appear to be directed posterior?
What is the name given to the odontoid process when the facet for the fovea dentis lies below the groove for the transverse Atlantal ligament and the attachment sites for the apical-dental and the alar ligaments appear to be directed anterior?
What joint surfaces are present at the inferior part of the vertebral boy of C2?
Anterior lip, posterior lip, right and left lateral grooves and cancellous bone
How many many joints are formed by the inferior part of the vertebral body of C2?
Fibrous (amphiarthrosis) syndesmosis, modified synovial saddle (diarthrosis sellar) and cartilaginous (amphiarthrosis) symphysis
How many joint surfaces are present at the vertebral body of C2?
What joint classifications are present at eh enteral Boyd of C2?
Fibrous (amphiarthrosis) syndesmosis, synovial pivot (diarthrosis Trochiod), modified synovial saddle (diarthrosis Sellar) and cartilaginous (amphiarthrosis) symphysis
What ligament forms the anterior boundary for the spinal canal above C2?
What ligament forms the anterior boundary for the spinal canal below C2?
Posterior longitudinal ligament
What lies on the upper surface of the pedicle of C2?
The superior articular process
What is the location of the superior vertebral notch of C2?
On the lamina-pedicle junction
What attaches to the lamina of C2?
Obliquus capitis inferior muscle, posterior Atlanto-axial ligament, ligamentum flavum
What is the appearance of the superior articular facets of C2?
They are asymmetrical and slightly convex
What is the facet orientation of the superior articular facet of C2?
Backward, upward and lateral (BUL)
What is the orientation of the inferior articular facets of C2?
Forward, lateral, and down (FoLD)
What muscle attaches to the articular processes of C2?
What is the gender variation for the transverse diameter of C2?
Males: 57 mm and females: 50mm
What muscles attach to the transverse process of C2?
Levator scapulae, middle scalene, splenius cervicis, longissimus cervicis and intertransversarii
What is the characteristic appearance of the C2 spinous process in humans?
What is the location for palpation of the spinous process of C2?
In the midline, about 2 inches below the external occipital protuberance
What muscles attach to the spinous process of C2?
Rectus capitis posterior major, obliquus capitis inferior, spinalis cervicis, semispinalis cervicis, multifidis, rotators and interspinalis muscles