Flashcards in Audition Deck (79)
These are the STIMULI for HEARING.
True or False: Sound waves can never be analyzed into simple components.
FALSE, no matter how complex sound waves are, they CAN BE ANALYZED into SIMPLE COMPONENTS.
This is a SIMPLE FORM of SOUND WAVE into which complex sounds can be analyzed.
Each SINE WAVE has TWO (2) aspects ___________ and _________.
FREQUENCIES that are involved in HUMAN HEARING are between ____ and ____cps.
20 and 20,000
*Fig 7.3 & 7.4 p.165*
What are the THREE (3) parts of the AUDITORY SYSTEM?
What are the THREE (3) parts of the EXTERNAL EAR?
External Auditory Meatus
This part of the EXTERNAL EAR COLLECTS SOUND WAVES.
This is a CANAL of the EXTERNAL EAR that runs FROM the PINNA inward.
External Auditory Meatus.
This part of the EXTERNAL EAR SEPARATES the EXTERNAL ear FROM the MIDDLE ear.
The TYMPANIC MEMBRANE is also known as the _________.
The MIDDLE EAR is comprised of what FOUR (4) major parts?
This part of the MIDDLE EAR is comprised of SMALL BONES.
This OSSICLE is ATTACHED to the UPPER PART of the TYMPANIC MEMBRANE. (Also known as hammer)
The MALLEUS fits inside of the SOCKET of this OSSICLE. (Also known as ANVIL)
The small FOOT OF the INCUS ARTICULATES with this OSSICLE. (Also known as the STIRRUP)
The FOOT OF the STAPES fits tightly into THIS MEMBRANE that SEPARATES the MIDDLE EAR from the INNER EAR.
Name the TWO (2) MUSCLES of the MIDDLE EAR.
Tensor Tympani Muscle
This MIDDLE EAR MUSCLE is ATTACHED to the STAPES NEAR its joint with the INCUS.
The STAPEDIUS MUSCLE DAMPENS the MOVEMENT of the STAPES, REDUCING _______________.
Amplitude of Vibration
This MIDDLE EAR MUSCLE is ATTACHED to the MALLEUS.
Tensor Tympani Muscle
This PART of the MIDDLE EAR CONNECTS the CAVITY of the middle ear to the MOUTH. It functions to EQUALIZE PRESSURE of ear cavity with outside air.
The INNER EAR is comprised of the __________, _________ and _________.
This part of the INNER EAR is the PRIMARY RECEPTOR organ of HEARING.
In the HUMAN EAR, the COCHLEA turns ____ times.
2 & 3/4 times
The BROAD END of the COCHLEA is called the ______.
The NARROW TERMINAL END of the COCHLEA is called the ______.
The CAVITY of the COCHLEA is DIVIDED into what THREE (3) CANALS?
Separating the SCALA VESTIBULI and the SCALA MEDIA is the ___________.
Between the SCALA MEDIA and the SCALA TYMPANI is the ___________.
This is located at the BASE OF the SCALA VESTIBULI.
*see illustration in notes*
This is located at the BASE of the SCALA TYMPANI.
*see illustration in notes*
The SCALA VESTIBULI and the SCALA TYMPANI COMMUNICATE through the ____________ AT the APEX of the cochlea.
The SCALA VESTIBULI and the SCALA TYMPANI contain FLUID called ________.
The SCALA MEDIA contains FLUID called ___________.
The ORGAN OF CORTI is composed of ____________ plus TWO (2) MEMBRANES; ____________ and __________.
These are SPECIALIZED EPITHELIAL CELL-NEURON COMBINATIONS mounted IN BASILAR MEMBRANE and TECTORIAL MEMBRANE.
Auditory Receptor Hair Cells
True or False: When pressure is exerted on the under surface of the basilar membrane, both the basilar & tectorial membrane move together.
True or False: because of their different sites of attachment have different axes of rotation forcing the two membrane to slide across one another in a shearing motion.
True or False: the shearing action initiates a generation of nerve impulses in the auditory component of cranial nerve X.
FALSE, it initiates a generation of nerve impulses in the auditory component of CRANIAL NERVE VIII (8)
*FIG. 7.5 p.166*
List the SEQUENCE OF EVENTS leading to TRANSDUCTION. (5)
1.) Movement of FLUID
2.) Movement of MEMBRANES
3.) MEMBRANES SLIDE across one another
4.) SHEARING ACTION
NERVE FIBERS that INNERVATE the HAIR CELLS have their bodies in the ____________.
The COCHLEAR GANGLION is LOCATED in the inner wall of the ___________.
This is when the MUSCLES OF THE MIDDLE EAR CONTRACT in response to moderately LOUD SOUNDS.
The TYMPANIC REFLEX has a PROTECTIVE FUNCTION and is GREATEST with ___________ sounds.
TINNITUS is a continual RINGING SOUND resulting from continuos _________ stimulation.
When EARS are MISMATCHED for PITCH, it is called ___________.
DISPLACUSIS is also known as ____________.
True or False: DIPLACUSIS is true deafness.
FALSE, DIPLACUSIS is NOT a true type of deafness.
This occurs when there is DAMAGE to RECEPTORS OF AUDITORY NERVE.
Cases of NERVE DEAFNESS typically show LOSSES of SENSITIVITY in restricted range of frequencies or losses of ________ frequency.
This occurs when CALCIFICATION of the OSSICLES cause them to be IMPEDED.
With CONDUCTION, the AUDIOGRAM REFLECTS CHANGE in ABSOLUTE THRESHOLD by up to ___ or ___ decibels.
40 or 50
This is the method of MEASURING hearing ability and DEAFNESS.
What are the THREE (3) THEORIES of PITCH?
Traveling Wave Theory
The OVICOCHLEAR BUNDLE goes FROM the _____________ back to the ear and INHIBITS INCOMING sensory INFORMATION FROM the EAR.
The _____________ is involved in the phenomenon of SENSORY GATING.
The OVICOCHLEAR BUNDLE is ___________ in function.
This THEORY of PITCH was proposed by RUTHERFORD and holds that a sound of ___ cps would cause axons to fire 50 times per second.
In regards to the VOLLEY THEORY, WEAVER and BRAY claimed that the AUDITORY NERVE can fire ____ cps because different NEURONS ALTERNATE.
According to the VOLLEY THEORY, WEAVER and BRAY held that there are ___ SETS of NEURONS in the AUDITORY NERVE.
____________ SAW the entire COCHLEA as a TELEPHONE.
____________ believed that the MEMBRANE MIMICS the INCOMING SOUNDS and that DIFFERENT FREQUENCIES are CODED into pitch BY PRODUCING DIFFERENT FREQUENCIES of nerve impulses.
The PLACE THEORY was PRODUCED BY _____________.
The ___________ THEORY proposed that the BASILAR MEMBRANE is a SELECTIVE RESONATOR that RESPONDS in DIFFERENT LOCATIONS depending on the frequency.
The TRAVELING WAVE THEORY was proposed by _____________.
The ____________ THEORY assumed that the BASILAR MEMBRANE is UNDER TENSION down its ENTIRE LENGTH.
True or False: the traveling wave theory proposed that above 60 cps, the basilar membrane vibrates evenly over its area.
The TRAVELING WAVE THEORY proposed that above 60 cps, the BASILAR MEMBRANE VIBRATES UNEVENLY over its area.
According to the ____________ THEORY the point of MAX DISPLACEMENT is dependent upon FREQUENCY of SOUND stimulus.
Traveling Wave Theory
True or False: according to the traveling wave theory, the basilar membrane is a uniform thickness.
According to the TRAVELING WAVE THEORY, the BASILAR MEMBRANE is a NOT UNIFORM THICKNESS.
BASE is THICK, STIFF and RESISTANT to movement while APEX is WIDE and FLEXIBLE.
According to the TRAVELING WAVE THEORY, HIGH FREQUENCY sounds DISPLACE membrane MAXIMALLY at the __________, MEDIUM FREQUENCY sounds DISPLACE at the __________ and LOW FREQUENCY displaces sounds at the __________.
According to the TRAVELING WAVE THEORY the BASILAR MEMBRANE is NOT ____________.
UNDER TENSION down its ENTIRE LENGTH
True or False: according to the traveling wave theory, the basilar membrane acts as a mechanical frequency analyst, thus it is able to encode sound frequencies.
According to the TRAVELING WAVE THEORY, the BASILAR MEMBRANE acts as a mechanical FREQUENCY ANALYST, thus it is ABLE TO ENCODE sound FREQUENCIES.
Is the AUDITORY CORTEX TONOTOPICALLY ORGANIZED?
REGIONS ON the BASILAR MEMBRANE in CLOSE PROXIMITY PROJECT TO locations in area ___ that are also in close proximity.
Is AUDITORY CORTEX (area 41) NECESSARY for FREQUENCY DISCRIMINATION?
NO, SUBCORTICAL areas can MEDIATE this function.
Is the AUDITORY CORTEX NECESSARY for PATTERN DISCRIMINATION?
This is based on ARRIVAL of SOUND at the TWO (2) EARS.