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Flashcards in Audition Deck (79):
0

These are the STIMULI for HEARING.

Sound Waves

1

True or False: Sound waves can never be analyzed into simple components.

FALSE, no matter how complex sound waves are, they CAN BE ANALYZED into SIMPLE COMPONENTS.

2

This is a SIMPLE FORM of SOUND WAVE into which complex sounds can be analyzed.

Sine Waves

3

Each SINE WAVE has TWO (2) aspects ___________ and _________.

Intensity
Frequency

4

FREQUENCIES that are involved in HUMAN HEARING are between ____ and ____cps.

20 and 20,000

*Fig 7.3 & 7.4 p.165*

5

What are the THREE (3) parts of the AUDITORY SYSTEM?

External Ear
Middle Ear
Inner Ear

6

What are the THREE (3) parts of the EXTERNAL EAR?

Pinna
External Auditory Meatus
Tympanic Membrane

7

This part of the EXTERNAL EAR COLLECTS SOUND WAVES.

Pinna

8

This is a CANAL of the EXTERNAL EAR that runs FROM the PINNA inward.

External Auditory Meatus.

9

This part of the EXTERNAL EAR SEPARATES the EXTERNAL ear FROM the MIDDLE ear.

Tympanic Membrane

10

The TYMPANIC MEMBRANE is also known as the _________.

Eardrum

11

The MIDDLE EAR is comprised of what FOUR (4) major parts?

Ossicles
Oval Window
Muscles
Eustacian Tube

12

This part of the MIDDLE EAR is comprised of SMALL BONES.

Ossicles

13

This OSSICLE is ATTACHED to the UPPER PART of the TYMPANIC MEMBRANE. (Also known as hammer)

Malleus

14

The MALLEUS fits inside of the SOCKET of this OSSICLE. (Also known as ANVIL)

Incus

15

The small FOOT OF the INCUS ARTICULATES with this OSSICLE. (Also known as the STIRRUP)

Stapes

16

The FOOT OF the STAPES fits tightly into THIS MEMBRANE that SEPARATES the MIDDLE EAR from the INNER EAR.

Oval Window

17

Name the TWO (2) MUSCLES of the MIDDLE EAR.

Stapedius Muscle
Tensor Tympani Muscle

18

This MIDDLE EAR MUSCLE is ATTACHED to the STAPES NEAR its joint with the INCUS.

Stapedius Muscle

19

The STAPEDIUS MUSCLE DAMPENS the MOVEMENT of the STAPES, REDUCING _______________.

Amplitude of Vibration

20

This MIDDLE EAR MUSCLE is ATTACHED to the MALLEUS.

Tensor Tympani Muscle

21

This PART of the MIDDLE EAR CONNECTS the CAVITY of the middle ear to the MOUTH. It functions to EQUALIZE PRESSURE of ear cavity with outside air.

Eustacian Tube

22

The INNER EAR is comprised of the __________, _________ and _________.

Cochlea
Semicircular Canals
Vestibular Sacs

23

This part of the INNER EAR is the PRIMARY RECEPTOR organ of HEARING.

Cochlea

24

In the HUMAN EAR, the COCHLEA turns ____ times.

2 & 3/4 times

25

The BROAD END of the COCHLEA is called the ______.

Base

26

The NARROW TERMINAL END of the COCHLEA is called the ______.

Apex

27

The CAVITY of the COCHLEA is DIVIDED into what THREE (3) CANALS?

Scala VESTIBULI
Scala MEDIA
Scala TYMPANI

28

Separating the SCALA VESTIBULI and the SCALA MEDIA is the ___________.

Reissner's Membrane

29

Between the SCALA MEDIA and the SCALA TYMPANI is the ___________.

Basilar Membrane

30

This is located at the BASE OF the SCALA VESTIBULI.

Oval Window

*see illustration in notes*

31

This is located at the BASE of the SCALA TYMPANI.

Round Window

*see illustration in notes*

32

The SCALA VESTIBULI and the SCALA TYMPANI COMMUNICATE through the ____________ AT the APEX of the cochlea.

Helicotrema

33

The SCALA VESTIBULI and the SCALA TYMPANI contain FLUID called ________.

Perilymph

34

The SCALA MEDIA contains FLUID called ___________.

Endolymph

35

The ORGAN OF CORTI is composed of ____________ plus TWO (2) MEMBRANES; ____________ and __________.

Hair Cells
Basilar Membrane
Tectorial Membrane

36

These are SPECIALIZED EPITHELIAL CELL-NEURON COMBINATIONS mounted IN BASILAR MEMBRANE and TECTORIAL MEMBRANE.

Auditory Receptor Hair Cells

37

True or False: When pressure is exerted on the under surface of the basilar membrane, both the basilar & tectorial membrane move together.

TRUE

38

True or False: because of their different sites of attachment have different axes of rotation forcing the two membrane to slide across one another in a shearing motion.

TRUE

39

True or False: the shearing action initiates a generation of nerve impulses in the auditory component of cranial nerve X.

FALSE, it initiates a generation of nerve impulses in the auditory component of CRANIAL NERVE VIII (8)

*FIG. 7.5 p.166*

40

List the SEQUENCE OF EVENTS leading to TRANSDUCTION. (5)

1.) Movement of FLUID
2.) Movement of MEMBRANES
3.) MEMBRANES SLIDE across one another
4.) SHEARING ACTION
5.) TRANSDUCTION

41

NERVE FIBERS that INNERVATE the HAIR CELLS have their bodies in the ____________.

Cochlear Ganglion

42

The COCHLEAR GANGLION is LOCATED in the inner wall of the ___________.

Cochlea

43

This is when the MUSCLES OF THE MIDDLE EAR CONTRACT in response to moderately LOUD SOUNDS.

Tympanic Reflex

44

The TYMPANIC REFLEX has a PROTECTIVE FUNCTION and is GREATEST with ___________ sounds.

Low Frequency

45

TINNITUS is a continual RINGING SOUND resulting from continuos _________ stimulation.

Low Grade

46

When EARS are MISMATCHED for PITCH, it is called ___________.

Displacusis

47

DISPLACUSIS is also known as ____________.

Tone Deafness

48

True or False: DIPLACUSIS is true deafness.

FALSE, DIPLACUSIS is NOT a true type of deafness.

49

This occurs when there is DAMAGE to RECEPTORS OF AUDITORY NERVE.

Nerve Deafness

50

Cases of NERVE DEAFNESS typically show LOSSES of SENSITIVITY in restricted range of frequencies or losses of ________ frequency.

High

51

This occurs when CALCIFICATION of the OSSICLES cause them to be IMPEDED.

Conduction

52

With CONDUCTION, the AUDIOGRAM REFLECTS CHANGE in ABSOLUTE THRESHOLD by up to ___ or ___ decibels.

40 or 50

53

This is the method of MEASURING hearing ability and DEAFNESS.

Audiogram

54

What are the THREE (3) THEORIES of PITCH?

Volley Theory
Place Theory
Traveling Wave Theory

55

The OVICOCHLEAR BUNDLE goes FROM the _____________ back to the ear and INHIBITS INCOMING sensory INFORMATION FROM the EAR.

Superior Olive

56

The _____________ is involved in the phenomenon of SENSORY GATING.

OVICOCHLEAR BUNDLE

57

The OVICOCHLEAR BUNDLE is ___________ in function.

Efferent (motor)

58

This THEORY of PITCH was proposed by RUTHERFORD and holds that a sound of ___ cps would cause axons to fire 50 times per second.

50

59

In regards to the VOLLEY THEORY, WEAVER and BRAY claimed that the AUDITORY NERVE can fire ____ cps because different NEURONS ALTERNATE.

4,000

60

According to the VOLLEY THEORY, WEAVER and BRAY held that there are ___ SETS of NEURONS in the AUDITORY NERVE.

4

61

____________ SAW the entire COCHLEA as a TELEPHONE.

RUTHERFORD

62

____________ believed that the MEMBRANE MIMICS the INCOMING SOUNDS and that DIFFERENT FREQUENCIES are CODED into pitch BY PRODUCING DIFFERENT FREQUENCIES of nerve impulses.

Rutherford

63

The PLACE THEORY was PRODUCED BY _____________.

HELMHOLTZ

64

The ___________ THEORY proposed that the BASILAR MEMBRANE is a SELECTIVE RESONATOR that RESPONDS in DIFFERENT LOCATIONS depending on the frequency.

Place Theory

65

The TRAVELING WAVE THEORY was proposed by _____________.

Von Bekesy

66

The ____________ THEORY assumed that the BASILAR MEMBRANE is UNDER TENSION down its ENTIRE LENGTH.

Place Theory

67

True or False: the traveling wave theory proposed that above 60 cps, the basilar membrane vibrates evenly over its area.

FALSE,

The TRAVELING WAVE THEORY proposed that above 60 cps, the BASILAR MEMBRANE VIBRATES UNEVENLY over its area.

68

According to the ____________ THEORY the point of MAX DISPLACEMENT is dependent upon FREQUENCY of SOUND stimulus.

Traveling Wave Theory

69

True or False: according to the traveling wave theory, the basilar membrane is a uniform thickness.

FALSE,

According to the TRAVELING WAVE THEORY, the BASILAR MEMBRANE is a NOT UNIFORM THICKNESS.

BASE is THICK, STIFF and RESISTANT to movement while APEX is WIDE and FLEXIBLE.

70

According to the TRAVELING WAVE THEORY, HIGH FREQUENCY sounds DISPLACE membrane MAXIMALLY at the __________, MEDIUM FREQUENCY sounds DISPLACE at the __________ and LOW FREQUENCY displaces sounds at the __________.

Base
Middle Part
Apex

71

According to the TRAVELING WAVE THEORY the BASILAR MEMBRANE is NOT ____________.

UNDER TENSION down its ENTIRE LENGTH

72

True or False: according to the traveling wave theory, the basilar membrane acts as a mechanical frequency analyst, thus it is able to encode sound frequencies.

TRUE,

According to the TRAVELING WAVE THEORY, the BASILAR MEMBRANE acts as a mechanical FREQUENCY ANALYST, thus it is ABLE TO ENCODE sound FREQUENCIES.

73

Is the AUDITORY CORTEX TONOTOPICALLY ORGANIZED?

YES

74

REGIONS ON the BASILAR MEMBRANE in CLOSE PROXIMITY PROJECT TO locations in area ___ that are also in close proximity.

41

75

Is AUDITORY CORTEX (area 41) NECESSARY for FREQUENCY DISCRIMINATION?

NO, SUBCORTICAL areas can MEDIATE this function.

76

Is the AUDITORY CORTEX NECESSARY for PATTERN DISCRIMINATION?

YES

77

This is based on ARRIVAL of SOUND at the TWO (2) EARS.

Sound Localization

78

True or False: sounds arrive faster at the ear that is more distant.

FALSE,

Sounds arrive FASTER at the ear that is CLOSER.