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Foundations of Neuroscience > Audition > Flashcards

Flashcards in Audition Deck (23):
1

What effects the pitch of a sound?

The frequency of the waves

2

What is the pinna?

The outer ear

3

What is the role of the pinna?

Directs sound

4

What is the entrance to the ear?

The ear canal

5

What do sounds strike?

The ear drum

6

What do the bones of the ear do?

Amplify and transmit the waves to the fluid of the inner ear

7

What is the cochlear?

Coiled tube
Three chambers

8

Fibres have different what?

Resonance frequencies

9

What happens when the fibres move?

They trigger the hair cells which send an impulse to the cochlear nerve

10

By what factor does the middle ear amplify sound?

x20

11

What is the proper name for the ear drum?

Tympanic membrane

12

What are the three bones of the ear?

Malleus
Incus
Stapes

13

What is the eustachian tube?

Connects the middle ear to the nose

14

What is the attenuation reflex?

Loud sound causes muscles of the middle ear to contract reducing conduction to the cochlear
This adaptation is both protective and helps discern high frequency sounds

15

What are the three chambers of the cochlear?

Scala vestibuli
Scala media
Scala tympani

16

What is the organ of Corti?

Stereocilia interact with the tectorial membrane
Stereocilia are on the surface of hair cells
Hair cells connect to auditory nerve

17

What does movement of stereocilia trigger?

Depolarisation of hair cells

18

How are different frequencies identified?

Very low frequency - phase locking
Intermediate frequency - phase locking and tonotopy
High frequency - tonotopy

19

How is sound located?

Interaural delay
Interaural intensity differences

20

What is the pathway of the cochlear nerve?

Cochlea
Ventral cochlear nucleus
Dorsal cochlear nucleus
Superior olive
Lateral lemniscus
Inferior colliculus
Auditory cortex

21

What could be causes of deafness?

Conduction disrupted
Obstruction of the auditory canal
Middle ear infection
Head trauma

22

How would the cochlea nerve be damaged?

Effect of antibiotics, kanamycin and gentamicin
Damage to dorsal cochlear nucleus

23

What happens if hair cells are damaged?

Tinitus
Noisy ear