Audition, the Body Senses, and the Chemical Senses Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Audition, the Body Senses, and the Chemical Senses Deck (48):
1

Define Sound

Pressure waves generated by vibrating air molecules

2

4 features of a sound wave

1. Waveform
amplitude plotted against time
2. Phase
3. Amplitude
usually expressed in decibels (dB)
log units
4. Frequency
expressed in Hertz (Hz): cycles/sec

3

molecular condensation

displacement of molecules closer together

4

rarefaction

displacement of molecules further apart

5

3 dimensions of a sound wave

pitch
loudness
timbre

6

pitch

Determined by frequency
Measured in Hertz
Similar to hue in vision

7

loudness

Amplitude
function of intensity
Similar to brightness in vision

8

timbre

complexity
E.g., clarinet
Similar to saturation in vision

9

Steps of Transformation of sound waves into neural activity

Step 1 - external and middle ears
collect sound waves
amplify pressure (to transmit to inner ear, from air to fluid)

Step 2 - inner ear
signal is broken into simpler components
sensory hair cells transduce frequency, amplitude & phase
auditory nerve fibers encode electrical activity

10

Outer Ear

pinna
concha
auditory meatus (ear canal)

11

Pinna

Structure of flesh & cartilage attached to each side of head. Responsible for:
- Collecting & altering reflection of sound waves into middle ear
- Helping locate sound source

12

Parts of the Middle Ear

Tympanic Membrane
Ossicles
Oval Window

13

Role of the Tympanic Membrane

vibrates at same rate when struck by sound waves

14

Ossicles

Transform waves into stronger waves
Three bones of middle ear
Malleus – “hammer”; 1st ossicle
Incus - “anvil”; 2nd
Stapes - “stirrup”; last ossicle

15

Role of the Middle Ear

Impedance matching of airborne sounds to acoustic waves traveling in fluid of inner ear
Boosts pressure through:
Force: big tympanic membranesmall oval window
Tympanic membrane 20x larger than foot of stapes
Lever action of ossicles

16

Oval Window

Membrane of inner ear
Across opening in bone surrounding cochlea
Stapes presses against it
Transmits sound waves into the viscous fluid within the cochlea

17

Inner Ear

Sonic energy transduced into impulses
Comprised of Cochlea, Organ of Corti, Scala vestibuli, tympani, & media, Basilar membrane, Tectorial membrane, Hair cell, Round window

18

Cochlea

Snail-shaped structure of inner ear; contains auditory transducing mechanisms
Coiled (~35 mm long uncurled)
Amplifies sound waves
Converts them into neural signals
Decomposes complex waveforms

19

Organ of Corti

Receptive organ of cochlea
Sits on basilar membrane, contains auditory hair cells
the transducer

20

Scala vestibuli, tympani, & media

Fluid filled chambers

21

Basilar membrane

Membrane in cochlea of inner ear
Contains the Organ of Corti

22

Tectorial membrane

Located above basilar membrane
Serves as shelf against which cilia of auditory hair cells move

23

Hair cell

Receptive cell of auditory apparatus
Lie between basilar membrane & tectorial membrane in cochlea (like a ceiling, moves against it)
Movement/bending toward the tallest cilium increases tension on the tip links, which opens ion channels and increases influx of K+ and Ca+ ions.

24

Round window

Opening in bone surrounding cochlea
Vibrates with opposite phase to vibrations entering inner ear through oval window
Permits vibrations to be transmitted through fluid in cochlea

25

Cilium

Hair-like appendage of cell involved in movement or sensory transduction
Found on receptors in auditory & vestibular system

26

Conductive hearing loss

damage to external inner or middle ear

27

Sensorineural hearing loss

damage to inner ear

28

Describe frequency tuning in relation to the basilar membrane.

freq. tuning due in part to physical characteristics of basilar membrane (wider, more flexible at apical end; narrower & stiffer at base)
The stapes vibrates against membrane of oval window-introduces sound waves to cochlea
Vibrations cause part of basilar membrane to flex & pressure changes in fluid beneath it are transmitted to membrane of round window.
round window moves in & out- opposite of oval window movement
Diff frequencies of sound vibrations cause diff. portions of bas. memb. to flex

29

What happens if someone has a bone that grows over the round window?

their basilar membrane will not be able to easily flex back and forth so they would have severe hearing loss. however they can have a procedure done 'window making'

30

nerve deafness or inner ear deafness

damage to cochlea, hair cells or auditory nerve
can be deaf to some frequencies (aging), can be inherited or due to loud noises- can produce tinnitus

31

cochlear implants

directly stimulate auditory nerve- bypass outer and middle ear
many able to hear and understand speech, music, etc but earlier the better

32

What is the olivocochlear bundle

bundle of efferent axons that travel from the olivary complex of the medulla (involved with auditory function/localization of sound source) to synapse directly on outer hair cells and on dendrites on inner hair cells

33

What and where is the cochlear nucleus

in medulla; receives auditory info from cochlea

34

Describe auditory pathway

Hair cells--> cochlear nucleus--> superior olivary complex --> inferior colliculus --> MGN in thalamus --> temporal lobe auditory cortex

35

Where is the primary auditory cortex (A1)? Describe how each hemisphere/where it receives info from and talk about dorsal and ventral stream pathways

in superior temporal cortex
each hemisphere receives most info from contralateral ear
2 streams like visual- what and where pathways
visual and auditory where pathways overlap in parietal
what pathway only- modulated by emotion

36

What are 2 functions of the vestibular system?

balance, maintenance of head in upright position

37

What are its 2 components

vestibular sacs- 2 receptor organs in each inner ear that detect changes in tilt of head
semicircular canals- detect changes in head rotation
*these are 2nd and 3rd components of labyrinth of inner ear- 1st was cochlea
its hair cells moving to tallest also cause depolarization

38

Vestibular pathway

1 of the 2 branches of the 8th cranial nerve (auditory)
ganglion house cell bodies of afferent axons of vestibular nerve
neurons of vestibular nuclei send axons to cerebellum, spinal cord, medulla/pons (nausea, vomiting) and maybe even temporal cortex

39

Vestibular ocular reflex

exerts control on eye movements to compensate for sudden head movements

40

Glabrous skin?
Corpuscles?
Merkel's disk?

glabrous- hairless
corpuscles- detect vibrations
merkel's disk- sensitive to points/edges

41

Somatosenses- describe perception of touch

ion channels open when skin is moved and membrane is stretched

42

Somatosenses- describe temperature

2 types of thermal receptors- coolness or warmth

43

Somatosenses- pain

experience evoked by a harmful stimulus that directs our attention and holds it. can be physical and/or emotional

44

What type of pain do myelinated axons (faster) respond to? unmyelinated?

myelinated- faster- intense mechanical or thermal stimuli
unmyelinated- slower- tissue damage, chemical or thermal

45

2 major somatosensory pathways

dorsal/ML tract- carries precise info, fine touch
anterolateral system- carries imprecise, incl pain and temp

46

what is activated in immediate emotional consequence of pain? what about for long term emotional implications of chronic pain?

immediate emotional- ACC and insular cortex- changes in unpleasantness
long term chronic- PFC

47

What sense is most subject to adaptation than other senses?

olfaction- smell

48

6 qualities of taste

bitter
sour
sweet
salty
umami- taste produced by glutamate
fat