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Neuroanatomy > Auditory & Vestibular > Flashcards

Flashcards in Auditory & Vestibular Deck (49)
1

what is hearing

neural perception of sound energy

2

what is sound

audible disturbance of molecules in a medium (air/water)

3

what kind of wave - sound

longitudinal

4

what is frequency and amplitude

frequency - pitch (low = low)
amplitude - volume (high/low pressure)

5

what is unit sound

decibel (dB)

6

what is audible range

~20Hz to 20kHz

7

what si the external ear for

air
collection

8

what si the middle ear for

bone
conc

9

what is the inner ear for

fluid
detection

10

what does the middle ear transmit

vibrations via ossicles to inner ear - mechanical concentrator and transmitter

11

what does inner ear transmit

cochlea traduces vibrations to electrical impulse

12

what are the layers of tymp mem

skin
CT
resp epi

13

name parts of ear

external ear
EAM
tymp mem
middle ear
middle ear ossicles
inner ear
IAM
cochlea
nasopharyngeal tube

14

what are the ossicles

tiny bones
malleus
incus
stapes

15

what are the ossicle joints

synovial joints

16

what si the conc of sound energy

big mem of tymp mem goes to small space meaning intensity and conc increase
not amplify

17

what fluid fills outer channels

perilymph

18

what fluid fills inner channels

endolymph

19

what is perilymph

essentially extracellular fluid - Na ions

20

what does fluid in ear system allow

conducting nerve AP's

21

what is the helocotremA

where two outer tubules meet at ape of cochlea

22

what are the three tubes of cochlea

scala vestiboli
scala tympani
scala media (middle)

23

what si the purpose of round window

transmit pressure in closed tube and dissipates it
deformable

24

what is the central part of cochlea

modulus bone

25

what are the hair cells in the ear

single row inner hairs used for hearing
outer hairs few used for sound location

26

what is the collection of hair cells called

organ of corti

27

what is stria vascular

sp epi on lateral wall of media producing endolymph

28

what is tonotopicity

cochlear organised in terms of high and low tones
high tones incase cochlea whilst low tones at helicotrema

29

what is the route for CN 8

sup olivary nun
trapezoid body
lateral lemniscus
medial lemniscus
inf colliculus
medial geniculate body
auditory radiation

30

why does nerve go to sup olivary nun

for localisation and space diff intensities

31

what is trapezoid body

crossing point of axons from one side to other

32

what happens in lateral lemnisus

synapse

33

how does tonotopicity affect structure

forrad and lateral - lower tones received
post and medial - high frequency

34

what ar the 3 components of the labyrinth

utricle
saccule
semicircular ducts

35

what do the components of the labrtinht have

receptors for movement and her cells fro trasnudcing sound

36

where are the receps for angular rectption

semicircular canals

37

what si the cupola

gelatinous goo on top hair cells

38

what is cupola for

if turn head water push cupola set off AP's giving detcetio of head movement

39

what are the semicircular canals to each other

90 degrees

40

how are the semicircular canals arranged

ant, post, lat
canted in sp way not anatomical planes

41

how do semicircular ducts work

in pairs

42

what is ant paired with

post

43

when turning head what fires

turn left
left increases fire
right decrease fire

44

what is macula

sensory plaque in saccule and utricle

45

what does macula detect

linear acceleration and head position

46

what are otoliths

grains calcium carb
on top gelatinous goo
heavier than water so can tell stationary dtection

47

what is path of vestibular fibres

ganglion
nuclei
medial longitudinal fascicles - extra ocular muscle activated
flocularnodular node -cerebellum
thalamus
cortex

48

what is doll's eye manoeuvre

vestibule-ocular reflex
off ride effect on eyes fast flick to side and slow back

49

what si projection of vestibular info to cortex

bilateral