Auditory system & chemical senses Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Auditory system & chemical senses Deck (25):
1

5 qualities of taste

Bitterness, sourness, sweetness, saltiness, umami (savory)

2

Otosclerosis

Autosomal dominant genetic disorder characterized by fusion of the stapes to oval window causing difficulty of movement followed by eventual cessation of ear ossicle movement (most common adult cause of hearing loss)

2

Olfactory tract axons project directly to

Piriform cortex, amygdala, entorhinal cortex

3

Which part of the cochlea analyzes the quality of sounds?

Dorsal

4

Which part of the cochlea encodes intensity info?

Ventral

5

Destruction of the cochlea, cochlea nerve, or cochlea nuclei results in

Complete ipsilateral deafness

5

Gustatory pathway

CNs 7, 9, 10 => nucleus of the solitary tract in the medulla => ventral posteromedial nucleus of thalamus => primary gustatory cortex in anterior insula-frontal operculum => secondary gustatory cortex in orbitofrontal cortex

5

Anosmia

Loss or reduction of sense of smell, can be from problems at nasal, neuroepithelial, or central level

6

What 3 cranial nerves are involved in gustation?

7, 9, 10

7

Damage to the lateral lemniscus results in

Bilateral partial deafness, greatest in the contralateral ear

8

Organ of Corti

Auditory transductor, which consists of cells that bend in response to sound waves

9

Auditory sharpening

Processes whereby relay nuclei in the auditory pathways differentialy inhibit impulses concerned with certain frequencies thereby enhancing the frequencies of other sounds

10

Parcusis

Sound heard previously is heard repeatedly

10

Central auditory pathways are unlike any other ascending pathways due to what 2 factors

1) presence of accessory nuclei that modulate input 2) B representation of auditory impulses on each side

12

Release phenomenon

Elaborate auditory hallucination assoc. w/ sensorineural deafness or lesion of the pontine tegmentum

13

Dysosmia or parosmia

Distortions or illusions of smell

15

2-phase process of sound localization

1) convergence & comparison of auditory input from 2 ears 2) distribution of analysis to appropriate side of system

16

Olfactory hallucinations are most often due to seizures in the

Temporal lobe (uncinate fits)

18

Lesions of the auditory unimodal association areas result in

Auditory perceptual impairments, including cortical deafness, pure word deafness, auditory agnosia for sounds, phonagnosia

19

Auditory pathway

Cochlear nerve => dorsal (direct to lateral lemniscus) & ventral cochlea nucleus in medulla => B to superior olivary nucleus & trapezoid body => lateral lemniscus => inferior colliculus => MGN => Heschl's gyrus

21

What structures are essential to sound localization?

Trapezoid body & superior olivary nucleus

22

Presbyacusis

Progressive loss of hearing with age

23

Self-audible bruits

Pulsating "whooshing" sounds associated with turbulent flow in AVM, carotid dissection, elevated ICP

24

The Primary Auditory Cortex is organized tonotopically, so that low frequencies are represented more

Anteriorly

25

Musical hallucinations are often caused by seizures in the

Right hemisphere