August 1 Lecture 9 Immigration Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in August 1 Lecture 9 Immigration Deck (20):
1

talk about Out-migration: between 1867-1900

Anyone can come unless you are destitute or criminal, but primarily British people are coming.
• But Canada was losing more people than it was taking in during the period between 1867 and 1900.
• The United States offers accessible frontier land, industrial jobs, and a better climate.
•Quebec people left for New England
•Maritimes lost a lot of people.
• People flowed through Canada: arriving from Great Britain and then moving quickly on to the United States.
• During the period between 1871 and 1891 1.25 million
people immigrated to Canada but over 1.55 million
immigrated out for a net loss of nearly 300,000 people which was only made up of natural reproduction. Natural reproduction is keeping population up.

2

Explain block settlments

• There were efforts to bring in blocks of settlers during the
The 1870s: 7400 German-speaking Mennonites to southern
Manitoba and 2000 Icelandic people to Gimli, Manitoba,
along Lake Winnipeg.
• The mass migration of Jewish people to Canada commenced in the 1880s (they would number 100,000 in Canada by 1914) and the first eight Mormon families arrived in Alberta in 1887 (they would number 7,000 by 1912).
• But Canada remains a British and French nation: The 1901 census reported 88 percent of Canadians were of British or French descent, just four percent lower than in 1871.

there is a graph that you should look at
https://www.google.ca/search?q=number+of+immigrants+who+landed+annually+in+Canada,+1852+to+2014&source=lnms&tbm=isch&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwj11qjg5czcAhVs5oMKHZi_ANwQ_AUICygC&biw=2048&bih=1280#imgrc=-_takOM_7CKvdM:

3

Talk about Immigration boom, 1896-1914

• Clifford Sifton, Liberal minister for the Interior between 1896 and 1905, keeps trying to recruit people from Britain BUT adds an effort to recruit from Eastern and Southern Europe people for recruitment.
• Sifton: “I think a stalwart peasant in a sheepskin coat, born on the soil, whose forefathers have been farmers for ten generations, with a stout wife and a half-dozen chickens, is good quality.”
• By 1903 there were over 100,000 people immigrating to
Canada a year: immigration would peak at 400,000 in 1913.

• “Pull factors” included the end of a long economic
depression, improvements in steam and rail transportation
needed to move people across Europe and across Canada, technological advances in agriculture including increased mechanization to make it more efficient.
• “Push factors” in Europe included ethnic and religious
tensions and persecution throughout Eastern Europe,
including active pogroms against Jewish people, industrial upheaval, and the collapse of peasant farming systems in Eastern Europe.

• More diversity in the prairies: Settlement in the three prairie provinces consisted equally of settlers from Canada, Britain, U.S., eastern and western Europe
• Overall, two-thirds of immigrants came from Britain or the United States and they settled in Canada’s growing industrial cities as well.
• The occupations of new immigrants: included farmers,
temporary laborers on farms, in factories and in resource
industries, or in domestic service.

Recruitment from Great Britain included: Domestic servants:
• Between 1904-1914: 90,000 British women immigrated to
Canada to work in domestic service
• Recruitment is generally racially exclusive, with the exception of a domestic scheme which brought 100 women from Guadeloupe in 1900-1911 to work in Quebec homes

Home Children:
• Between the 1860s and 1920s, 100,000 orphaned children
from Britain were sent to Canada. Many were treated as
unpaid labor by the families that hosted them on arrival.

• The arrival of an ethnically diverse collection of people at the turn of the century shook up Canada’s Anglo-French dynamic.
• Immigration created anxiety in Quebec because the people coming were either coming from English speaking places or were coming from other places in Europe and choosing to learn English rather than French.
• Between 1900 and 1940 nationalist voices in Quebec
continuously raised concern about immigration
• covenants deferred people like Jewish people from buying cottages.

Toronto remained 86.4 percent Anglo-British (and 99.7 percent European) in 1911. But it looked nervously at the new Europeans within its midst and in particular the growing Jewish community
• When Toronto’s Chief Medical inspector Charles Hastings conducted his Slum inspection in 1911 he listed people by ethnicity but ignored them if they were Anglo-Saxon.
• Distinct ethnic enclaves such as the Jewish Ward emerged in Toronto.
• Building covenants made it illegal to sell to Jewish people, black people, or people from Asia in certain neighborhoods.

4

talk about creating a white Canada

• Race, as a social construct, evolves in steps.
• The Atlantic slave trade and the expansion of European
empires create the foundation for hierarchies that are
based around things like race.
• Darwinism, and particularly social Darwinism in the
nineteenth century gives an evolutionary logic for the idea
that racial difference represents a hierarchy.
• The rise of new scientific approaches such as ethnology,
anthropology, eugenics, psychology, and sociology solidify the idea that there is a racial difference; that we can measure it; and that racial boundaries cannot be crossed.

so we can measure race and racial boundaries cannot be crossed and will always be distinct.

5

talk about Early Chinese immigration to Canada

• The first Chinese people came to British Columbia with the gold rush in 1858.
• After 1879 over 15,000 Chinese workers were admitted into Canada: about half of them headed on to work on
completing the Canadian Pacific Railway. They were brought in by labor contractors who in the late 1870s shuttled workers back and forth across the border.
• John A. MacDonald on using Chinese labour: “I am pledged to build the great Pacific Railroad in five years, and if I cannot obtain white labor, I must employ other.”
With completion of CPR, they stepped in immediately with a head tax of 50 dollars to 500. they also passed a franchise act that stopped them from voting. Canada is reflecting American policy. Race helps create boarders.

6

talk about Closing the border: 1907-1914

Federal level:
• At the federal level, the thickening of the border was
influenced by Frank Oliver, minister of the interior, 1905 to
1911.
• The immigration act was revised in 1906 to exclude them feeble-minded, those afflicted with loathsome diseases, professional beggars, prostitutes.
• Scientific racism concerns merge with moral concerns: if
unfit women entered the country and had children they
could in an evolutionary sense devalue the Anglo-Saxon race.

British Columbia:
• British Columbia drives Canada’s exclusionary policies.
• European workers feel threatened by Chinese and Japanese labor which allows race, labor, and class to intertwine.
• Chinese immigration to British Columbia had declined: but it hadn’t stopped. And Japanese and East Asian immigration were increasing.
• By 1907 there were 16,000 Chinese in BC, 8,000 Japanese and 5,000 people from South Asians. About 10 percent of the population in British Columbia was of Asian descent.

• Chinese and Japanese people in British Columbia worked in the mining, forestry industries, salmon canning and fruit farming, and in the rail industry. Their presence was supported by the manufacturing, transportation and
resource industries.
• The effort to actively recruit and use Japanese and Chinese labour in an effort to drive down wages transferred the class conflict that usually existed between capital and workers to a conflict between European and non-European workers.

• A strong nativist movement emerges in British Columbia; it’s rooted in—but not limited too—organized labor.
• This nativist faction controlled provincial politics in British
Columbia and aggressively tried to create new anti-immigration laws.
• Until 1907, Ottawa acted as the defender of businesses that wished to import workers.
• The federal government wanted to cap rather than end
immigration from Asia: the province didn’t want any people from Asia coming in: employment agencies continued to find ways to get workers in.

7

Talk about the Vancouver riot, 1907

• Nativist anger came to head during the Vancouver Riot in 1907 that lasted for three days, from September 7 to 9,
1907. The rioters targeted Chinatown on the first night and
then turned on Japantown.
Vancouver Riot aftermath:
• Liberal Labour Minister William Lyon MacKenzie King led the investigation that followed. King called for increased
restrictions on immigration to British Columbia arguing that without them the province would erupt in class and race warfare.

• The Hayashi-Lemieux Agreement or what’s known as the Gentlemen’s Agreement in passed in 1908: Japan agreed to restrict the number of male laborers going to Canada to 400. The agreement mirrored a similar agreement that the United States had come to with Japan in 1907. Canada did not want outright exclusion because of trade. Japan liked it because at least they had some control as opposed to the Chinese who were outright excluded. Legislation locked Chinese in but they could bring picture wives from Japan.
• Canada also brought in “continuous journey regulation” as an amendment to the Immigration Act in 1908, prohibiting the landing of any immigrant that did not come to Canada by the continuous journey from the country of which they were natives or citizens: this was intended to stop immigration from Japan and India. Arrivals needed 200 dollars in hand. Britain is worried about Indian nationalism, so says they can come to Canada. Passport put in place to control movement between Canada and India. Passport is a mechanism that conceals race. "sanitizes racism"

• Canada thickened its racial border further with an
amendment to its immigration act in 1910 that gave Cabinet the authority to exclude “immigrants belonging to any race deemed unsuited to the climate or requirements of Canada.” They even banned black people in 1911 due to racial violence.

8

Talk about the Vancouver riot, 1907

• Nativist anger came to head during the Vancouver Riot in 1907 that lasted for three days, from September 7 to 9,
1907. The rioters targeted Chinatown on the first night and
then turned on Japantown.
Vancouver Riot aftermath:
• Liberal Labour Minister William Lyon MacKenzie King led the investigation that followed. King called for increased
restrictions on immigration to British Columbia arguing that without them the province would erupt in class and race warfare.

• The Hayashi-Lemieux Agreement or what’s known as the Gentlemen’s Agreement in passed in 1908: Japan agreed to restrict the number of male laborers going to Canada to 400. The agreement mirrored a similar agreement that the United States had come to with Japan in 1907. Canada did not want outright exclusion because of trade. Japan liked it because at least they had some control as opposed to the Chinese who were outright excluded. Legislation locked Chinese in but they could bring picture wives from Japan.
• Canada also brought in “continuous journey regulation” as an amendment to the Immigration Act in 1908, prohibiting the landing of any immigrant that did not come to Canada by the continuous journey from the country of which they were natives or citizens: this was intended to stop immigration from Japan and India. Arrivals needed 200 dollars in hand. Britain is worried about Indian nationalism, so says they can come to Canada. Passport put in place to control movement between Canada and India. Passport is a mechanism that conceals race. "sanitizes racism"

• Canada thickened its racial border further with an
amendment to its immigration act in 1910 that gave Cabinet the authority to exclude “immigrants belonging to any race deemed unsuited to the climate or requirements of Canada.” They even banned black people in 1911 due to racial violence.

9

what is The Komagatu Maru:

• The continuous journey stipulation and the monetary requirement made the entry of Indians into Canada virtually impossible. In fact, between 1909 and 1913, only twenty-seven Indians managed to enter Canada.
• The Komagata Maru, filled with 376 passengers, challenged the law.
• It arrived in Vancouver on May 23, 1914, and over the next two months, there would be a struggle for them to enter Canada before their efforts were finally rejected by the Canadian Court of Appeal which upheld Canada’s immigration laws and the Orders in Council which outlined the continuous journey law. Most of them do not get in and the rest rejected. Liberalism tells us everyone should be equal as british subjects but this happens.

on the return to India, the passengers were met by police and were arrested. Canada apologized in 2016

10

talk about the 1920s

• The Chinese Immigration Act of 1923 banned the entry of virtually all Chinese immigrants for 24 years.
• The four exceptions were students, merchants (as defined by the minister of immigration and colonization), diplomats and Canadian-born Chinese returning from education in China. Additionally, every person of Chinese descent, whether Canadian-born or naturalized, was required to register for an identity card within 12 months.
• In 1928 Canada further restricted Japanese immigration to 150 persons annually and put a stop to picture brides.
What we don't see is a quota from Europe. Canada becomes increasingly European and not just British.

11

talk about the 1930s

• During the 1930s in the midst of the Great Depression Canada stopped accepting immigrants almost entirely and when confronted with people requesting refugee status, the Prime Minister MacKenzie King government argued entry into Canada was a privilege for those who could assimilate.
• Canada was one of a number of countries that turned away the MS St. Louis in 1939, which was carrying over 900 Jewish refugees from Germany. They were finally accepted in various European countries. a quarter of these people died in death camps.

12

When was WWII?

Sep 1, 1939 – Sep 2, 1945

13

When Was WWI?

July 28, 1914 – November 11, 1918

14

talk about After World War II: Change from above

• Atlantic Charter: signed by the United States and Great
Britain in 1941, which argued that people have the right to
self-determination, and a world free of want and fear.
• The United Nations Charter in 1945 "reaffirmed faith in
fundamental human rights, and dignity and worth of the
human person" and committed all member states to
promote "universal respect for, and observance of, human
rights and fundamental freedoms for all without distinction
as to race, sex, language, or religion.”
• The Universal Declaration of Human Rights in 1948.

• Chinese Immigration Act is repealed in 1947, and Chinese Canadians win the right to vote.
• MacKenzie King: “the effect of repeal will be to remove all discrimination against the Chinese on account of race.”
• MacKenzie King: “there will, I am sure, be general agreement with the view that the people of Canada do not wish, as a result of mass immigration, to make a fundamental alteration in the character of our population. Large-scale immigration from the Orient would change that fundamental composition of the Canadian population.” Chinese people could come but King made ti clear that they did not want them to come. there were also restrictions that made it hard for people to come through.

Other post-war changes:
• Building covenants that had allowed developers and property owners to exclude property ownership based on race and ethnicity were struck down in 1950 and the Canadian courts cited the United Nations Charter directly as they did so.
• Canada finally extended the federal franchise to Japanese people in
1948. Aboriginal people, who still held status under the Indian Act,
would have to wait until 1960 to get the federal franchise.

15

talk about post-war immigration

• The first people through the doors were the war brides; over 40,000 women who had married or formed relationships with Canadian servicemen in Europe and some 20,000 children. More than 2 million people had been displaced after World War II:
• Canada after much delay finally accepts displaced people as immigrants. the boundaries of a lot of countries changed. some people were moved out of where they were living.
• Over 165,000 reached Canada by 1953, and chain migration brought relatives in to join them.

16

talk about Immigration Act 1952 revisions:

Attempt to maintain a white Canada continues:
• The 1952 update to Canada’s immigration policy gave cabinet and the immigration department the ability to select immigrants, even on a case by case basis.
• The act retained language that called for exclusions based on peculiar customs, unsuitability for Canadian conditions, and probable inability to become readily assimilated into full Canadian citizenship and included new restrictions to prohibit homosexuals, drug addicts, and drug traffickers from entering the country.
in 1956, Canada was called upon to admit 900,000 refugees in the middle east and their Canada took
Immigration in the 1950s and 1960s:
• Immigration remained very European in the 1950s and 1960s
• By 1965, 800,000 British people had come to Canada and over 1.5 million continental Europeans including 400,000 Italians and another 300,000 of German descent.
Canada started to train these people before they came in. they are trying to build people. immigrants were allowed to cook with ethnic recipes and could share their literature.
• By 1971, some 43 percent of Toronto’s population was foreign-born: but while Toronto was more ethnically diverse than ever it remained a very European city

17

Cold War Immigration and gatekeeping

• Canada responded to immigration in the 1950s by setting up a series of gatekeepers—a group including professional dietitians, public health nurses, social workers, food writers, etc—who conducted classes intended to initiate the
newcomers into a middle-class Canadian way of life.
• Indigenous people moving into cities were treated as
immigrants too by the gatekeepers. But, unlike the European immigrants, they were trained as a distinct group with the expectation that they would move into working-class jobs. They were basically treated as another group of immigrants

18

Key Changes from Progressive Conservative Prime Minister John Diefenbaker:

• Canada Bill of Rights in 1960 rejects discrimination by reason of race, national origin, colour, religion, or sex.
• Immigration act amendments, 1962: Order-in-Council PC
1962-86, 1962 end the use of race and national origin as
reasons for exclusion from Canada.
• The new immigration regulations specified that nonsponsored immigrants would be assessed on the basis of their education, training, skills or other special qualifications rather than their race, ethnicity or national origin.
• It was a tacit recognition that Canada would no longer be able to fulfill all its labour needs from Europe.

19

Canada adopts Points System in 1967

The 1966 White Paper on Immigration recognized that Canada’s immigration system was too imprecise for selecting nonsponsored immigrants.

The points system, a change to the Immigration Act initiated through Order-in Council PC 1967-1616, 1967, was colourblind and included criteria such as education,
training, personal qualities, occupational demand, age and linguistic capacity. alot of people from non-European countries began to funnel in.

20

Immigration Act, 1976:

• The 1976 bill accepted refugees as one of the categories of people that could enter Canada. The impetus was the humanitarian crisis that came from the Vietnam War.
• The 1976 revisions also gave the provinces more power to select their own immigrants, something that Quebec was demanding but which Ontario and Nova Scotia also signed on for as well.
• And under the new act homosexual people were finally
removed as one of the excluded groups from coming into
Canada.