Flashcards in Australia Deck (119):
What are the four classifications for vines in the Barossa Old Vine Charter (self-regulated)?
Old Vine: 35+ years old
Survivor Vine: 70+ years old
Centenarian Vine: 100 years old
Ancestor Vine: 125+ years old
In the 1970s there was a shift in export wines from _____ to _____.
From fortified to table wines.
Australia is strongly affected by the weather systems ____ and ____.
El Niño and La Niña. Since 2006 Australia has hurt with both drought and fires; 2011 La Niña dumped rain and was one of the wettest growing seasons on record.
The one region NOT affected by the crappy weather is ____.
Since 2006 Western Australia has had sublime growing seasons.
Two ways to get cooler in Australia:
Go uphill or go south.
Two relatively high altitude GIs at the northern limit of The Great Dividing Range are:
South Burnett (1993) and Granite Belt (1965) in Queensland. Both depend on altitude to keep cool
Australia's second most planted variety is:
Most of the bulk wine in Australia comes from:
Riverland (South Australia)
Murray Darling (Victoria/NSW border)
Name three rivers that provide irrigation in NSW:
Darling, Murray, and Murrumbidgee Rivers
When did vines arrive in Australia?
In 1788 with the first prisoners from Britain.
Who owns Penfolds and Lindeman's?
Treasury Wine Estates
Phylloxera hit Australia in:
The late 1800s. It was contained to Victoria and NSW.
Another factor that allowed the rise of South Australia's wine prominence was:
The creation of Commonwealth of Australia in 1901 -- it brought a relaxation of the interstate trade barriers.
Today, the state of South Australia annually produces about __% of the nation’s wine.
From the post-phylloxera period until the 1960s, approximately __% of Australia’s production consisted of sweet, fortified wines.
Today, Australia is the ____ largest wine exporter in volume, behind Italy, France, and Spain.
The heart of commercial winemaking in Australia include:
Technical proficiency, mechanical harvesting, irrigation, and blending.
Is chaptalization allowed in Australia?
No -- grapes have no trouble ripening. Chaptalization is illegal.
Irrigation is or is not allowed in Australia?
It is allowed.
What is Penfolds’ iconic “Grange”?
A Shiraz debuted by Max Schubert in 1951 as “Grange Hermitage”. Unlike most luxury wines, “Grange”, a renowned wine and one of the first New World collectible bottlings, is generally blended from many vineyards across several regions—a testament to the Australian style.
Name some iconic wines from Australia:
Penfolds “Grange” Shiraz
Henschke “Hill of Grace” Shiraz (Eden Valley)
Clarendon Hills “Astralis” (McLaren Vale)
Yalumba “Octavius” Shiraz (Barossa Valley)
Torbreck “RunRig” Shiraz (Barossa Valley)
Top Barossa vintages in Australia from 1990:
2005, 2010 spectacular (high points)
1994, 1996, 1998
2001-2004, 2006, 2012, 2013
2012 and 2013 were great vintages in Australia everywhere except:
New South Wales.
What is Wine Australia?
A government authority established in 1981 as the Australia Wine and Brandy Corporation.
It maintains oversight over the wine industry, regulating its label language, defining geographical boundaries of wine regions, moderating exports and trade, and promoting the product at home and abroad.
The Label Integrity Program was introduced by whom and when?
By Wine Australia in the 1990 vintage.
The Label Integrity Program requires any wines labeled by variety, vintage, or region to contain a minimum 85% of the stated grape, year, or region, respectively. If multiple varieties are to be listed on the label (i.e., Grenache-Syrah-Mourvèdre) the grapes must be listed in order of proportion in the blend. All components making up a minimum 85% of the blend must appear on the label, and no listed grape may be in lower proportion than an unnamed variety.
Wine Regions in Australia are known as:
Geographical Indications (GIs)
Within each state, Australian appellations are subdivided into:
Zones, regions, and sub-regions.
Regions are not necessarily contained within a single zone, nor are zones necessarily contained within a single state.
In 1996, Wine Australia authorized the multistate zone of South Eastern Australia, which encompasses:
all of Victoria, Tasmania, and New South Wales, along with the winegrowing areas of South Australia and Queensland.
What is The Great Dividing Range?
A complex of mountain ranges running along the north-south axis of eastern Australia, separates the wetter coastal areas from the more arid interior.
New South Wales accounts for approximately ___% of Australia’s wine production, with over half of the state’s production concentrated west of the Great Dividing Range in the heavily irrigated Riverina region, also known as the Murrumbidgee Irrigation Area.
Who makes Yellow Tail?
Who makes "Noble One," a botrytised Semillon dessert wine?
De Bartoli in Riverina. First released in 1982.
Hunter Valley GI is one of Australia's most important growing regions. Viticulture dates back to the ___s and its climate is _____.
1830s, climate is subtropical (it's one of the warmest climates in Australia, mitigated by high amounts of humidity, rain, and wind).
Hunter Valley's most planted grape is ____, aka ____.
Semillon, aka Hunter Riesling.
Name two famous Hunter Valley Semillons.
Tyrrell’s “Vat 1"
Brokenwood’s “ILR Reserve"
They are usually released 5 and 6 years after the vintage, respectively.
What other grape is popular in Hunter Valley?
What is Broke Fordwich?
A sub-region of Hunter Valley. It claims the oldest Verdelho plantings in the country and offers dynamic Semillon wines sourced from sandy, alluvial soils. Shiraz and Cabernet Sauvignon are Broke Fordwich's most important red grapes.
The Canberra District region is technically split between:
The state of New South Wales and the Australian Capital Territory.
Clonakilla’s Canberra District Shiraz, co-fermented with a small percentage of Viognier, is a well known wine from this region.
To the southwest of Canberra, the alpine, cool-climate Tumbarumba GI is known for:
Sparkling wines and still Pinot Noir and Chardonnay from the sun-drenched, basalt slopes of the Snowy Mountains.
Other GIs in New South Wales:
Victoria is Australia's coolest and smallest state on the mainland. True or False?
True, but it has diverse conditions for wine growing.
How many zones does Victoria have?
North East Victoria Zone specializes in:
fortified dessert wines -- huge diurnal temps -- based on Muscat
Name two GIs in Victoria known for stickies:
Rutherglen and Glenrowan.
There are three higher altitude, cooler wine GIs in the North East Victoria Zone (sparkling wine):
One of the westernmost GIs in Victoria is:
Grampians, which lies 1100ft up in The Great Dividing Range. Soil is lime-rich. Seppelt is a well known producer from here.
Some GIs east of Grampians include (included in the western portion of Victoria):
What's the GI just south of Grampians?
Central Victoria GIs are:
What's the Port Phillip Zone?
The name of the regions clustered around Melbourne. It has a maritime climate (Region 1 or 2)
GIs in the Port Phillip Zone (Chardonnay and Pinot Noir):
Macedon Ranges - Australia's coolest region on the mainland
Geelong - maritime influence, thō driest GI (three sub-regions: Moorabool Valley, Surf Coast/Otways, and the Bellarine)
Gippsland - so big it's both a zone and a region
Mornington Peninsula's signature grape is:
The soils here are:
Australia's most common clone, thought to have been brought from Clos Vougeot by James Busby in the early 19th century, is:
Who was James Busby?
He was a Scottish-born botanist; he planted hundreds of cuttings/specimens.
Coastal Victoria is cooled by:
cool sea breezes coming up from Antarctica.
Victoria’s oldest wine region is:
Yarra Valley GI.
Two distinct soil types divide the Yarra Valley:
Grey-brown sandy loam (warmer Lower Yarra Valley in the north)
Red basalt-derived soils (cooler, higher-elevation Upper Yarra Valley in the south)
The inland zones of North East Victoria, North West Victoria (the hottest), and Central Victoria have what kind of climate?
Continental. North West Victoria is the hottest; irrigation is essential.
North West Victoria zone has two GIs:
Murray Darling and Swan Hill
What is “Topaque”?
A fortified Tokay style produced from Muscadelle grapes.
Rutherglen’s aged, fortified Brown Muscat is which Muscat?
Muscat à Petits Grains Rouge
What is the Muscat of Rutherglen Network?
It is a producers’ syndicate established in 1995, and it has developed a voluntary four-tier classification system for the wines based on age, sweetness, and complexity. The ages and residual sugar ranges for each category are indicative of each classification, but not absolute. Producers are responsible for classifying their own wines, based on taste alone, and member wines are denoted by the inclusion of a stylized “R” logo on the label.
What are the 7 zones of South Australia?
Mount Lofty Ranges
What are the regions in the Limestone Coast zone?
Coonawara (cool Mediterranean) produces some of Australia's best Cabernet Sauvignon. Why and give examples.
It has a cool Mediterranean climate and it also has terra rossa soil, which is rich in iron. Drier than Bdx, has more sunlight.
Examples include Wynns' "John Riddoch," and Parker Estate’s “First Growth.”
Padthaway GI also includes areas of terra rossa soil, and produces a similar style of Cabernet.
Lower Murray zone is directly north of the Limestone Coast and its one GI is:
Riverland GI. Its climate is continental and hot.
The climate of Fleurieu zone is:
Fleurieu zone's most important and warmest region is
McLaren Vale GI.
Famous wines from McLaren Vale GI include:
D’Arenberg’s “Dead Arm” Shiraz
Yangarra's "High Sands" Grenache
Drew Noon’s Grenache-based “Eclipse”
the dry-farmed Clarendon Hills’ “Astralis” Shiraz
The Mount Lofty Ranges Zone's 3 GIs:
Adelaide Hills GI --> Lenswood (Sauv Blanc), Piccadilly (Chardonnay)
Adelaide Plains GI (warmest and driest of the 3)
Clare Valley GI --> Watervale, Polish Hill River (moderate climate)
Lenswood and Piccadilly Valley subregions are in:
Top producers here?
Adelaide Hills GI
Shaw + Smith, BK Wines, Bird in Hand
The subregions of Watervale (limestone) and Polish Hill River (non-porous, broken slate) offer piercing, dry Rieslings from which GI?
Clare Valley GI
Adelaide GI, a “super zone," allows producers to blend freely from:
Barossa, Fleurieu, and Mount Lofty Ranges.
With the exception of Coonawarra, all of the state’s most important premium winemaking GIs -- Barossa Valley, Eden Valley, McLaren Vale, and Clare Valley -- are within it.
Grosset is famous for dry Rieslings from:
Clare Valley, specifically Polish Hill.
Traditionally, American oak hogsheads (300 liters) are used to age Barossa Valley wines, although many producers are now implementing more and more:
Penfolds is based in Barossa Valley. True or False?
Western Australia produces only about __% of the country's output.
The single most important region of Western Australia is:
Margaret River GI
- Great Southern GI and its 5 subregions are also important:
Franklin River, Mt. Barker, Albany, Denmark, Porongurup
Name some GIs around Perth:
Swan District GI
Perth Hills GI
Sub-region Swan Valley is located where?
Within Swan District GI. First vintage here was in 1834.
What are the 5 sub-regions of the Great Southern GI?
What are the GIs east of Margaret River GI?
When did wines first emerge from Margaret River GI?
- all created by doctors
Margaret River GI's reputation has been built on:
Cabernet Sauvignon, although it does grow other grapes
The island state of Tasmania is Australia’s coolest wine-producing area and its sole GI is:
Australia'a sweet and fortified wine production started to take off in the...
around the turn of the 19th century, especially around the newly irrigated lands near the Murray, Darling and Murrumbidgee Rivers.
From post-phylloxera until the 1960s, roughly 80% of Australia's production was sweet, fortified wines.
Who was Romeo Bragato?
An Austrian viticulturist from Victoria.
NZ's Dept of Agriculture charged him with studying their vineyards and combatting phylloxera. He identified many of NZ's modern regions except Marlborough.
Who was James Busby?
A British minister involved in early viticultural efforts in New South Wales in the 1830s.
He planted French and Spanish cuttings at his Northland, NZ estate.
What is the hottest appellation in Australia?
Swan Valley GI, in the Swan District just north of Perth.
Barossa zone's 2 most important GIs are:
Barossa Valley GI (Grange)
Eden Valley GI (Henschke, Pewsey Vale, Yalumba)
What are the 4 tiers of the Muscat of Rutherglen Network?
Grand Muscat - pretty oxidative
Rare Muscat - sweet and concentrated
What is Langton's?
It's the paramount guide to Australia’s finest wines. Entry into the Classification is based on a wine’s reputation (must have been made for at least 10 years) and track record at auction.
They're on the 6th Classification with 139 wines. Levels are Exceptional, Outstanding, and Excellent.
What are the wines in Langton's "Exceptional" category? (it's in its 5th installment)
Bass Phillip Reserve Pinot Noir
Brokenwood 'Graveyard' Shiraz
Clarendon Hills 'Astralis' Shiraz
Chris Ringland Shiraz
Henschke 'Hill of Grace' Shiraz
Rockford 'Basket Press' Shiraz
Torbreck 'RunRig' Shiraz
Penfolds 'Bin 707' Cabernet Sauvignon
Moss Wood Cabernet Sauvignon
Cullen 'Diana Madeline' Cabernet-Merlot
Mount Mary 'Quintet' Cabernet blend
Grosset 'Polish Hill' Riesling
Leeuwin Estate 'Art Series' Chardonnay
Which vintages were severely affected by drought in SE Australia?
2003, 2006, 2007, 2008, and 2009
Australia is currently the __th largest producer of wine in the world.
The top five varieties in the country today, in order of planting, are:
Shiraz, Cabernet Sauvignon, Chardonnay, Merlot, and Semillon.
Australia follows the __% rule.
When were the first GIs rolled out in Australia?
As in other New World countries, Australia’s GIs are purely geographic in scope, with no restrictions on grape varieties, yields, or other viticultural techniques.
The broadest Geographical Indications -- apart from the countrywide Australia GI itself -- are states, followed by zones, regions, and sub-regions.
Regions and sub-regions are defined by Wine Australia as single tracts of land, comprising at least five independently owned vineyards of at least five hectares apiece, with a minimum annual output of 500 tonnes of wine grapes. Regions are not necessarily contained within a single zone, nor are zones necessarily contained within a single state.
From 2011 onward Australian producers were barred from using European GIs like Burgundy, Champagne, Sherry, and Port; and Traditional Expressions like Claret and Amontillado.
Shiraz could henceforth no longer be labeled as its traditional Australian synonym “Hermitage.” Some expressions, such as Tawny, Solera, and Icewine, were reaffirmed for use under the new agreement, but the hotly contested “Tokay,” used by Rutherglen producers for more than a century, will be finally phased out by 2020. The loss of old terms is a catalyst for replacements: Tokay becomes Topaque and Sherry becomes Apera, an all-too-Australian play on “aperitif.”
What is regulated deficit irrigation (RDI)?
RDI creates water stress during certain key periods of the vine’s development by lowering the total amount of applied irrigation water. By utilizing RDI after fruit set, vineyard managers could limit vegetative growth while enhancing fruit coloration and restricting berry size, and it is thus particularly useful for red wine grapes. However, water deficit may lower yield, and negatively impact the development of aromatic varieties by slowing the accumulation of monoterpenes in the ripening grapes. RDI provides only marginal water use savings, and lower water use efficiency.
What is partial rootzone drying (PRD)?
PRD reduces total water use by up to 50% by alternating the application of drip irrigation from one side of a vine row to the other, keeping half of the rootzone irrigated and half dry. PRD may accomplish many of the same results in terms of heightened grape quality, but it does not greatly affect yield.
Is acidification legal in Australia?
Yes, with tartaric acid.
What is the capital of South Australia? Does SA remain phylloxera-free?
The world’s oldest Syrah/Shiraz vines are found in Barossa:
Oldest Mataro vines:
Australia's oldest Cab Sauv vines:
Shiraz: Langmeil’s “Freedom” vineyard, planted in 1843
Mataro: Koch family’s “Old Garden” 1853
CS: Penfolds’ “Block 42,” in Kalimna, dates to 1888
The Barossa Zone is divided into two parallel valleys:
Barossa Valley GI
- country’s largest fine wine region
- lower in elevation than Eden Valley
- warmer than Eden Valley
- produces Australia’s hottest and heaviest styles of Shiraz
Eden Valley GI (Hill of Grace planted here, great counter point to Grange!)
- higher in elevation
- rolling hills, rocky
- higher salinity in water
What is the famous fortified wine Seppetsfield makes?
“100 Year Old Para Liqueur”
Name two famous Barossa Valley GI Shiraz
Elderton’s “the Command”
How is sparkling Shiraz made? Name 2 reputable sources.
A base Shiraz is fermented to dryness and aged in oak prior to undergoing a second fermentation in tank. Typically, sweetness is added through a small dosage of Australian Tawny, and most examples are at least semi-sweet in style.
Rockford and Peter Rumball
Many Shiraz wines labeled “Barossa” rather than "Barossa Valley" (signifying the zone rather than the region) include a dash of Eden Valley fruit for lift and acidity. True or false?
What is Scarce Earth (McLaren Vale GI)?
A new project that seeks to recognize the hallmarks of individual sites (rather than obscure their imprint through blending).
What are Fleurieu Zone's 5 GIs?
McLaren Vale GI
Langhorne Creek GI
Currency Creek GI
Southern Fleurieu GI
Kangaroo Island GI
Clare Valley GI makes a famous Shiraz. What is it?
Jim Barry’s “Armagh”
What is the capital of New South Wales?
Hunter Valley Zone --> Hunter GI region --> 3 GI subregions. What are they?
Upper Hunter Valley
Pokolbin and Broke Fordwich are both located within what has traditionally been known as the Lower Hunter Valley—the heart of the region’s viticultural activities—but “Lower Hunter Valley” did not merit GI status.
There are three regions of the Central Ranges that lie on the western slopes of the Great Dividing Range:
- higher in altitude than Hunter GI, which it borders
- drier, less humid, greater diurnal shifts
- Craigmoor - 1st winery established in Mudgee 1858
- coolest of the 3 GIs
- warmest of the 3 GIs
Northern Rivers Zone - 1 GI
Northers Slopes Zone - 1 GI
South Coast Zone - 2 GIs
Northern Rivers --> Hastings River GI
Northers Slopes --> New England Australia GI
South Coast Zone --> Southern Highlands GI, Shoalhaven Coast GI
True or false: SA’s Riverland GI may be the largest single region in Australia, but Big Rivers is the top-producing zone in the country.
What is the capital of Victoria?