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Who is Australia's first inhabitants?

Australia’s frst inhabitants are the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples, who have the oldest continuous cultures and traditions in the world.


where are Aboriginal peoples from and when did they arrive in Australia?

Aboriginal people are from mainland Australia and Tasmania

archaeological record indicates that Aboriginal peoples arrived in Australia between 65,000 and 40,000 years ago

Aboriginal peoples believe they are central to the creation stories of this land, and their creation stories commence with the beginning of time.


Where are Torres Strait Islander peoples from in Australia?

Torres Strait Islander people are from islands between the northern tip of Queensland and Papua New Guinea.


What are Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples beliefs and traditions?

They have a deep connection with the land, which is expressed in their stories, art and dance. Indigenous cultures are diverse and an important part of Australia’s national identity.


When did European settlement start and why was it started?

started when the first 11 convict ships, which became known as the ‘First Fleet’, arrived from Great Britain on 26 January 1788.

British laws were harsh and the jails could not hold the large number of people imprisoned for their crimes. To manage this problem, the British Government decided to transport convicts to the other side of the world: to the new colony of New South Wales.


who was the first Governor of the colony of New South Wales?

The frst Governor of the colony of New South Wales was Captain Arthur Phillip. The colony survived, and as more convicts and free settlers arrived, it grew and developed. More colonies were established in other parts of Australia.


Where did the early settlers come from?

Early free settlers came from Great Britain and Ireland. This British and Irish heritage has had a major infuence on Australia’s recent history, culture and politics.


What year did the "Gold Rush" began and where was it discovered?

Who were the first large group of migrants that were not from Europe?

In 1851, a ‘gold rush’ began when gold was discovered in the colonies of New South Wales and Victoria.

People from all around the world came to these colonies to try to make their fortunes. Chinese people arriving at this time were the frst large group of migrants not from Europe. In 10 years, Australia’s population more than doubled.


What was Australia's Population in 1901 which did not include Aboriginal and Torress Strait peoples?

In 1901, Australia’s population was about four million. This number did not include Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples


What event took place in 1901?

In 1901, the separate colonies were united into a federation of states called the Commonwealth of Australia. It was at this time that our national democratic institutions, including our national parliament, government and the High Court were established under the new Australian Constitution.


When was the Commonwealth of Australia form?



What year were Aboriginal and Toress Straight Island peoples included in official estimates of the Australian population?

In 1901, Australia’s population was about four million. This number did not include Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples, as it was not until after a Referendum in 1967 that they were included in offcial estimates of the Australian population.


When did a wave of non-British migrants arrive in Australia?

A wave of non-British migration came after World War II, when millions of people in Europe had to leave their homelands. Large numbers of Europeans came to Australia to build a new life.


What is Australia's national Language?


Australia’s national language is English. It is part of our national identity. In keeping with Australian values, migrants should learn and use English to help them participate in Australian society. Communicating in English is important for making the most of living and working in Australia.
Other languages are also valued, including
more than 100 distinct Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander languages.


How many states and Territories are in Australia?

6 states
2 territories


What state was the first colony established by the British?

New South Wales

Sydney is the capital city of New South Wales and is the nation’s largest city. The Sydney Harbour Bridge and Opera House are national icons.


What is Australia's smallest mainland state?


Victoria’s capital city is Melbourne. Many fne buildings in Victoria were built from the wealth created by the gold rush of the 1850s. Victoria’s icons include the Melbourne Cricket Ground, the 12 Apostles, and the Royal Exhibition Building.


What is Australia's second largest state?

Queensland is the second largest state. Queensland’s capital city is Brisbane.

The Torres Strait Islands lie to the north of the state and the world-famous Great Barrier Reef runs along its eastern coast. Queensland has tropical rainforests, temperate coastal areas and an often dry inland.


What is Australia's largest state?

Western Australia is the largest state. Perth is the capital city of Western Australia.

The east of the state is mostly desert, while the south-west is a rich agricultural and wine-growing area. The state is home to many large mining projects. Western Australia’s icons include the Ningaloo Coast, Margaret River, and the Kimberley region.


What is Australia's smallest state?

Tasmania is the smallest state, separated from the mainland by the Bass Strait.

Tasmania’s capital city is Hobart. Much of the island has unspoilt wilderness landscapes. Tasmanian icons include Cradle Mountain, Port Arthur, and the Bay of Fires.


Where is the Australian Capital Territory located?

The Australian Capital Territory is located between Sydney and Melbourne.

It is home to the nation’s capital city, Canberra. Several national institutions are located in Canberra, including Parliament House and the High Court of Australia.


What is "A Welcome to Country"?

a cultural practice performed by an Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander custodian of the local region, welcoming visitors to their traditional land. This was traditionally performed to ensure visitors had a safe and protected journey during their time on that land.

- can take place through many forms, including songs, dances, smoking ceremonies or speeches in traditional language or English.

- is usually the first item of proceedings to open an event.

- an opportunity to recognise that the gathering is on Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander land; pay respect to Traditional Custodians, particularly Elders past and present; and pay respect to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples in attendance.

- usually delivered as part of the Welcome and Housekeeping at meetings and events. Anyone can deliver an Acknowledgement of Country. At meetings/events, this would generally be done by the Chair or Master of Ceremonies.

These practices are performed to show respect for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples.


When is Australia Day and why do we celebrate it?

]26 January each year, It is the anniversary of the arrival of the First Fleet from Great Britain in 1788.

Australia Day is a public holiday in every state and territory in Australia.


What year was the arrival of the "First Fleet" from Great Britain?



when is Anzac Day and what is it?

Anzac Day is commemorated on 25 April each year. Anzac Day is named after the Australian and
New Zealand Army Corps, which landed at Gallipoli in Turkey during World War I on 25 April 1915.

Anzac Day is a solemn day when we remember the sacrifce of all Australians who served and died in wars, conficts and peacekeeping operations.
We also honour the courage and commitment of all servicemen and women and refect on the many different meanings of war.


When did the Australian and NZ army corps land in Gallipoli in Turkey?

World War I on 25 April 1915.


What colour is the aboriginal flag?

Black, yellow, red

• ThetophalfisblackandrepresentstheAboriginal peoples of Australia.
• The bottom half is red and represents the earth, which has ceremonial signifcance.
• Theyellowcirclerepresentsthesun.


What are the features of the Australian Flag?

The Australian National Flag is blue, white and red.

• The ‘Union Jack’, which is the flag of the United Kingdom is in the top left corner. It represents our history of British settlement and the laws and institutions we inherited as a result.
• The Commonwealth Star is under the Union Jack. This star has seven points, each point representing one of the six states and one point for the territories.
• The Southern Cross, on the right, is a group of stars that can be seen in the southern sky.


What colour is the Torres Strait Islander Flag?

The Torres Strait Islander Flag is green, blue, black and white.

• The green stripes represent the land.
• The blue panel in the centre represents the sea.
• The black lines represent the Torres Strait Islander people.
• The white dancer’s headdress in the centre is a symbol for all Torres Strait Islanders.
• The points of the white star represent the island groups in the Torres Strait, and the colour white symbolises peace.


What is the official symbol of the Commonwealth of Australia?

The Commonwealth Coat of Arms is the offcial symbol of the Commonwealth of Australia. It represents our national unity. It identifies the authority and property of the Commonwealth of Australia.

• The shield in the centre represents the six states and federation.
• A kangaroo and an emu support the shield on each side. Both are native Australian animals.
• AgoldCommonwealthStarsitsabovetheshield.
• The background is the golden wattle, Australia’s national fower.