What is the climate of Austria?
What are the 8 sub-zones in Niederösterreich?
Weinviertel DAC (largest and the first DAC)
What are the 5 sub-zones in Burgenland?
What are the 3 sub-zones in Steiermark?
Whites of Austria
Grüner Veltliner (most cultivated)
Welschriesling (best are from Steiermark)
Roter Veltliner (red skinned)
Reds of Austria
What is Gemischter Satz?
A big boned white made up of at least three different varieties grown and vinified together with no perceptible oak. Many come from Thermenregion (the hottest region of Niederösterreich, known for its hot springs, is wide open to the Pannonian influence).
What distinguishes the wines of the Wachau?
The geography. Hot Pannonian summers cooled at night by refreshing northern breezes from the woods above. The Danube acts as a heat regulator, too.
In the Wachau, lower banks of loess and sand are planted to:
In the Wachau, upper/steepest slopes of gneiss and granite are planted to:
Famous Wachau producers:
Most of the vineyards in the Wachau are on which side of the Danube?
The north side.
Where is Nikolaihof?
The south side of the Danube on the far eastern part of the Wachau.
What is a Ried?
A top site.
What is arguably the most famous Ried in Wachau?
Ried Achleiten. It has slate and gneiss soils and is in the village of Weissenkirchen.
What is the Codex Wachau?
Members of the Vinea Wachau growers' association (1983) have to sign up for the Codex Wachau, whereby they agree not to buy in grapes and to make the purest, most expsressive wines possible: - no additives (including chaptalization) - no aromatization (including the use of new barrique) - no “fractionation” (techniques such as de-alcoholization)
Vinea Wachau came up with their own system of designating the wines. What is it?
Steinfeder - minimum must weight of 15° KMW and a maximum alcohol of 11.5%
Federspiel - minimum must weight of 17° KMW and a final alcohol range of 11.5%-12.5% (good in its first 5 years)
Smaragd - minimum alcohol of 12.5% and a minimum must weight of 19° KMW—the approximate equivalent of 95° Öchsle, or Spätlese ripeness. (better after 5 or 6 years because of the high degree of extract; most display tones of Botrytis)
Most of the soil in Kremstal is:
What are some other famous Rieds in Wachau?
Famous Kremstal producers:
Kamptal is about 1.8 degrees Fahrenheit warmer than the Wachau. True or False?
Which river in Kamptal brings cooler temperatures at night?
What is the soil like in Kamptal?
The Kamp, a south-flowing tributary of the Danube.
Kamptal soil is loess with sandstone, shale and limestone.
Famous Kamptal producers:
Famous Rieds in Kamptal:
What's the most famous village of Burgenland and who put it on the map?
Illmitz, on the southeastern shore of the Neusiedlersee. Alois Kracher made it famous with his sweet whites.
There are grapes grown in Burgenland that you don't see elsewhere in Austria. What are they?
Weissburgunder, Neuburger, Muskateller, Muscat Ottonel, Scheurebe.
Burgenland is best known these days for its:
Burgenland is Austria's hottest wine region. True or False?
True. It opens up to the Pannonian Plain.
Famous Burgenland producers:
What did Dr. Lenz Moser develop in the 1950s?
The wire trellising system.
What are the 4 major wine growing areas (weinbaugebiete) in Austria?
- Within these four major winegrowing areas 17 specific winegrowing regions have been designated (13 of which are DACs)
Niederösterreich and Burgenland contain about __% of the country’s vineyards
What are two synonyms for Chardonnay in Austria?
Morillon and Feinburgunder
Austrian wine law defines three levels of quality:
Landwein (land wine)
Qualitätswein (quality wine)
Prädikatswein (classed quality wines)
All three levels of quality share a maximum yield of 9,000 kg/ha (67.5 hl/ha) but minimum must weights increase with each level of quality.
-If the yield is larger, then the total volume must be declassified as a wine without origin
Qualitätswein is sourced from where?
- A single Weinbaugebiete or one of the 16 smaller wine regions; it may be produced from one or more of 35 permitted grapes.
- Qualitätswein, which accounts for approximately two-thirds of Austria's total production, must pass a tasting panel and chemical analysis, indicated by a State Control Number (Prüfnummer) and the inclusion of the red and white banderole on the bottle's capsule.
Wein may carry what on the label?
Wein—a generic category that replaced Tafelwein in time for the 2009 vintage—may carry a vintage date and a varietal on the label, but may not exhibit a more exclusive statement of origin than Österreich.
What's up with Landwein production?
Landwein production is restricted to the same 35 varietals permitted for Qualitätswein, but the wines are labeled with one of three broad geographic areas (Weinbauregionen): Weinland, Steirerland, or Bergland.
Qualitätswein may be further subdivided into the categories of:
Kabinett - must weight of 17 KMW, max RS 9g/L, not chaptalized, max 13% abv
Prädikatswein - can be referred to generically (e.g. Burgenland) or by region (e.g. Wachau). These are quality wines produced according to specific harvesting and maturation methods. All the sweet wines are Prädikat (Spätlese - Ausbruch)
DAC (Districtus Austriae Controllatus) - the legal abbreviation for for special region-typical quality wines
A minimum alcohol content of __% is required for wines labeled by prädikat.
In Austria, Kabinett wines are considered a subset of Qualitätswein rather than a beginning rung on the ladder of Prädikatswein; however....
...even at the Kabinett level winemakers are prohibited from practicing both chaptalization and the addition of Süssreserve.
Maximum 9 g/L RS
What is strohwein?
A dried grape wine of at least Beerenauslese ripeness.
What is Ausbruch?
A sweet specialty of Rust in Neusiedlersee-Hügelland.
Grapes destined for Ausbruch are harvested at a minimum 27° KMW (approximately 138°Öchsle). Production for Ausbruch bears similarities to the process of Tokaji: richly concentrated botrytis-affected must is added to less concentrated must—from fruit harvested in the same vineyard—and the two are fermented together, then aged in barrel before release.
Modern Ruster Ausbruch is more often produced from Chardonnay, Muskateller, Pinot Blanc, Neuburger, Welschriesling, Traminer and Pinot Gris.
The DAC system focuses on what?
What is the largest winegrowing region in the country?
What is the Pannonian Plain?
A former seabed of loess soils stretching from eastern Austria through Hungary and many countries of the former eastern bloc. The resulting continental climate ushers in hot, dry summers and severe winters; the seasonal divide is much more pronounced here than in many of the milder winegrowing climates of Western Europe.
What's the deal with Grüners from Weinviertel?
The wines are fresher and lighter in this cooler climate. DAC wines must be produced from Grüner Veltliner, with a minimum alcohol of 12%. They are approved by a tasting panel, which must determine that the wines show a distinct peppery note, and no obvious wood or botrytis tones.
A Reserve category for Weinviertel debuted with the 2009 vintage; these fuller-bodied wines show a minimum alcohol of 13% and may reveal hints of both botrytis and wood, supported by the richer character of the wine.
Traisental, Kamptal and Kremstal have similar regulations to Weinviertel, but...
The wines may be produced from either Grüner Veltliner or Riesling, and may be labeled either Classic or Reserve with a corresponding minimum alcohol content of either 12% or 13%. Again there can be no obvious notes of either botrytis or wood in the Classic examples. Grüner varietal wines from these three DACs show a more delicate spice, rather than the pungent white pepper of Weinviertel.
Name three important wine villages in the Kamptal.
Langenlois (Willi Bründlmayer is the star producer here)
Zöbing (Heiligenstien vineyard)
Burgenland is just on the other side of Hungary, and it shares many climatic characteristics with _____.
What is the climate of Burgenland?
Continental (hot Pannonian Plain climate is tempered by the cooling influence of the Neusiedlersee).
Mittelburgenland DAC produces reds made from:
Blaufränkisch, which may be sold from March 1 in the year following the harvest.
Reserve wines undergo an additional year of aging and have a higher minimum alcohol content—13% as opposed to 12.5%. Although many producers in the region are experimenting with barriques, the DAC regulations stipulate large casks or used wood in the event of barrique-aging.
Leithaberg DAC, located in the district of Eisenstadt within Neusiedlersee-Hügelland, is the first DAC to allow what?
Both red AND white wines. White wines may be blends or single varietals produced from Grüner Veltliner, Chardonnay, Neuburger, or Weissburgunder. The red wines are comprised of a minimum 85% Blaufränkisch, with stipulations similar to those of Mittelburgenland on new wood.
Leithaberg is predominantly chalk-based soil
Blaufränkisch is AKA what in Germany and Hungary?
Lemberger and Kékfrankos, respectively.
Styria's most cultivated varietals are:
Welschriesling, a grape unrelated (and inferior) to the noble Riesling, followed by Weissburgunder.
What is the river that flows through Wien (Vienna)?
Which sub-zones of Niederösterreich surround Wien?
Wagram, Weinviertel, Thermenregion, Carnuntum.
What is commonly produced in Wien?
Gemischter Satz, which received its own DAC in 2013. It's a field blend produced from at least 3 different white varieties.
What is Sturm?
A half-fermented, super-fresh, sparkling grape juice - it usually accompanies harvest-time meals.
Comes from Weinland, Steiererland and Bergland.
What is Heuriger?
A nouveau wine consumed in its infancy in taverns of the same name.
Name 3 villages in the Wachau going west to east
Spitz (most west) (vyd: Offenberg, Setzberg)
Weissenkirchen (middle) (vyd: Achleiten, Klaus)
Dürnstein (east) (vyd: Kellerberg, Schutt, Loibenberg)
Name two producers of Achleiten besides Prager
Josef Jamek, Rudi Pichler, Domaine Wachau, Holzapfel
The top vineyards in Kamptal face which direction?
South. They have largely loess soil and the vineyards are protected by mountain from northern chill and benefit from much the same climate and aspect as Kremstal and Wachau.
Where is the Heiligenstein vineyard and which village is it in?
Heiligenstein is in the village of Zöbing, in Kamptal.
Famous vineyards in Kremstal (west to east)
Pfaffenberg, Kögl (village of Stein)
Wachtberg, Gebling (village of Krems)
Gebling, Schnabel (village of Rohrendorf)
What was the first DAC? When was it established and which varietal(s) are authorized?
Weinveirtel DAC was the first in 2003, with the designation possible to use from the 2002 vintage.
Grüner is the only grape authorized for DAC in Weinviertel.
In what sub-regions are the Erste Lagen located and which varieties are authorized?
Located in Kremstal, Kamptal, Traisental and Wagram.
Varieties authorized are Grüner and Riesling.
What are the DACs for Blaufränkisch? Which DACs may include other varieties?
Mittelburgenland DAC (red only)
Eisenberg DAC (red only)
Leithaberg DAC (min 85% Blaufränkisch; also allows Pinot Blanc, Chardonnay, Neuburger, Grüner Veltliner, alone or as a blend)
What is the main grape of Neusiedlersee DAC?
Klassic: min 12%, very small amount of international grapes allowed in the blend
Reserve: min 13%, min 60% Zweigelt with the rest indigenous grape varieties
What is Uhudler? Where is it from in Austria?
Comes from Südbergenland. It's often rosé but can be made as a white. The varieties used are inter-specific hybrids, including Concord, Delaware, Elvira and Ripatella.
In which region is Klosterneuberg located?
It's 20 minutes northwest of Vienna. It's home to Stift Klosterneuburg, home to the oldest and largest working winery in Austria. It was founded by Augustinian monks and vines were planted in the 1100s.
What are two synonyms for Pinot Gris in Austria?
Grauburgunder and Ruländer
What is Schilcher?
Schilcher is a wine produced solely in Weststeiermark. It is a distinct rosé made from the indigenous Blauer Wildbacher grape. It should be drunk young and is great with cured meats.
Authentic Schilcher wine must carry the official emblem of the white horse (referring to the Lipizzans bred in Piber for the world-famous Spanish Riding School in Vienna) and also carry the official certification number of denomination.
What are the tiers of Austrian Sekt? Which tiers use which method? How long does each spend sur lie?
Grapes used: Welschriesling, Grüner Veltliner, and members of the Pinot family.
In 2015 a three-tier quality pyramid for Austrian Sekt was established:
Klassic (min 9 mos sur lie, all methods allowed)
Reserve (min 18 mos sur lie, méthod champenoise)
Große Reserve (min 30 mos sur lie, méthod champenoise; vineyard designation allowed)
Brut Nature, Extra Brut and Brut are allowed.
Name some Austrian Sekt producers
Schlumberger, Bründelmayer and Lenz Moser
What is the KMW equivalents for Wein, Kabinett, Spätlese, Eiswein, BA, Ausbruch, TBA?
(1 degree KMW = ~5 degrees Öchsle)
Wein: 15 KMW
Kabinett: 17 KMW
Spätlese: 19 KMW
Auslese: 21 KMW
Eiswein: 25 KMW (grapes frozen when harvested & pressed)
Beerenauslese: 25 KMW (must have noble rot)
Ausbruch: 27 KMW (if TBA from Rust, can call it Ausbruch)
TBA: 30 KMW (must have noble rot)
What is STK?
The full name of the acronym STK is "Steirische Terroir- und Klassikweingüter.“
It is an association made up of the region's very best producers who have devised their own quality seal of approval and classification of single vineyards, and essentially created the wine label description "Steirische Klassik."
STK wines are bottled quite young and feature maximum fruitiness and freshness whereas the more mature wines are aged separately for each vineyard. These premium wines are made exclusively from grapes grown in vineyards that boast outstanding soil and a particularly favorable microclimate.
Austria's largest wine-producing town: