Autocrine, Endocrine, Paracrine_Cell-Cell Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Autocrine, Endocrine, Paracrine_Cell-Cell Deck (37):
1

What type of communication systems does the body use?

1) Autocrine
2) Paracrine
3) Endocrine
4) Neuronal
5) Synaptic

2

What is the difference between Autocrine and Paracrine and Endocrine?

Autocrine: Cell secrete something that is having effect back on the same cell
Paracrine: Local signalling between different cell types (Cells close together)
Endocrine: Long distance signalling - all access pass (Signalling molecule from signalling cell travel through bloodstream to target cell)

3

What is the difference between Endocrine and Neuronal signalling?

Endocrine: slow and release it in the space and hopes the impulse finds it
Neuronal: fast, specific and takes it to exactly where it needs to go

4

Why do we need cell - cell signalling?

1) Control of muscle function
2) Control of organ function
3) Control of hormone secretion
4) Maintenance of organ structure

5

Which muscle does the cell-cell signalling control function of?

smooth muscle
skeletal muscle

6

Which organ does the cell-cell signalling control function of?

Heart
Guit
Liver
Kidney
Lungs

7

Which hormone secretion does the cell-cell signalling control?

Pituitary
Adrenal
Pancreas, etc.

8

Which organ structure does the cell-cell signalling control maintain?

Connective tissue
Epithelial/endothelial integrity

9

How have we evolved to?

To take advantage of physical and chemical characteristics of the building blocks from which we are composed

10

How do we take advantage of communication in the body?

Electrical communication
Neuronal signalling
Soluble signalling molecules

11

What is key to development of symbiotic relationships?

Ability to communicate - communication is central to multicellular organisms

12

How do receptors respond?

Cell recipient has to have a high affinity. The cell to respond has to express hormone receptor

13

What are the five senses?

Hearing
Touch
Smell
Taste
Sight

14

What is the cell of the human body that is more plastic?

Bone marrow and Epithelial Cells
- much more plastic
- Can be differentiated to other things

15

What does soluble signalling do?

Regulate function of cell or make it to do something

16

What is pulmonary fibrosis?

respiratory disease in which scars are formed in the lung tissues, leading to serious breathing problems.

17

What happens during pulmonary fibrosis?

Scar formation, the accumulation of excess fibrous connective tissue (the process called fibrosis), leads to thickening of the walls, and causes reduced oxygen supply in the blood.

18

What is adenocarcinoma?

a type of cancerous tumor that can occur in several parts of the body.

19

Why does adenocarcinoma occur?

epithelial cells start dividing, switch on teens to replicate and make new adhesions. the epithelial cells should receive signal to stop proliferation. If you don't stop, carcinoma is produced because the epithelial cells don't know when to proliferate.

20

What is an example of cell communication?

When a blood vessel grows, they need more oxygen to be input into the organ. if the organ doesn't have enough oxygen, it causes ischemia. Organs have Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) receptor to stimulate blood vessel growth. e.g. solid tumours in cancer

21

What are lymphoid malignancies?

- Lymphoma
- Myeloma
- Dysregulated immune system

22

Why is ventilation/perfusion needed?

Need it to be matching to make sure that the blood that goes back to the heart is oxygenated. This is in response to low oxygen

23

What ar other examples of cell communication and cell signalling?

- Knee jerk reflex
- Neutrophil hunting bacteria

24

What is a hormone that does long distance signalling?

Insulin hormone
Food -> increased blood glucose -> release of insulin from the pancreas (islets of langerhaans) -> insulin travels in the blood to stimulate glucose uptake into muscle, liver, fat cells

25

What effects outcome of signal?

1) half life of signalling molecule
2) distribution of signal
3) type of receptors
4) specificity of receptor for signal
5) Number of receptors activated
6) Type of intracellular signalling molecules recruited

26

What is cell communication essential for?

Survival of multi-cellular organisms

27

Which communication is short distance signalling?

1) Synaptic
2) Autocrine
3) Paracrine

28

Which communication is long distance signalling?

1) Neuronal
2) Endocrine

29

How does local distance cell signalling work?

- Contact: Gap Junctions & Adhesion Junction
- Cell cell signalling:
1) Paracrine (e.g. Histamine)
2) Autocrine (e.g. VEGF, IL-1)
3) Synpatic (e.g. ACh, NAD)

30

How does long distance cell signalling work?

Endocrine (e.g. Insulin, Adrenalin)
Neuronal

31

What is used in general cell signalling?

1) Signalling molecule (Ligand)
2) Receptor
3) Signal transduction pathway
4) Cellular response

32

What are examples of signalling molecule?

- Protein/peptide
- Hormone
- Neurotransmitter
- Nucleotide
- Lipid
- Gases
- Ions

33

What are examples of Receptor?

- Membrane bound
- or Intracellular (steroid hormone)

34

What are examples of Signal Transduction Pathway?

Amplification/second messages

35

What are examples of Cellular response?

- Contract
- Live/die
- Differentiate

36

What are ligands?

molecules that binds to receptor. Once it binds to the receptor, the receptor shape is changed and this influences what the receptor can do

37

What are the different target proteins?

- Transport protein -> Altered ion transport
- Metabolic enzyme -> Altered metabolism
- Gene regulatory protein -> Altered gene expression
- Cytoskeletal protein -> Altered cell shape or movement
- Cell cycle protein -> Altered cell growth and division