Flashcards in Autocrine, Endocrine, Paracrine_Cell-Cell Deck (37):
What type of communication systems does the body use?
What is the difference between Autocrine and Paracrine and Endocrine?
Autocrine: Cell secrete something that is having effect back on the same cell
Paracrine: Local signalling between different cell types (Cells close together)
Endocrine: Long distance signalling - all access pass (Signalling molecule from signalling cell travel through bloodstream to target cell)
What is the difference between Endocrine and Neuronal signalling?
Endocrine: slow and release it in the space and hopes the impulse finds it
Neuronal: fast, specific and takes it to exactly where it needs to go
Why do we need cell - cell signalling?
1) Control of muscle function
2) Control of organ function
3) Control of hormone secretion
4) Maintenance of organ structure
Which muscle does the cell-cell signalling control function of?
Which organ does the cell-cell signalling control function of?
Which hormone secretion does the cell-cell signalling control?
Which organ structure does the cell-cell signalling control maintain?
How have we evolved to?
To take advantage of physical and chemical characteristics of the building blocks from which we are composed
How do we take advantage of communication in the body?
Soluble signalling molecules
What is key to development of symbiotic relationships?
Ability to communicate - communication is central to multicellular organisms
How do receptors respond?
Cell recipient has to have a high affinity. The cell to respond has to express hormone receptor
What are the five senses?
What is the cell of the human body that is more plastic?
Bone marrow and Epithelial Cells
- much more plastic
- Can be differentiated to other things
What does soluble signalling do?
Regulate function of cell or make it to do something
What is pulmonary fibrosis?
respiratory disease in which scars are formed in the lung tissues, leading to serious breathing problems.
What happens during pulmonary fibrosis?
Scar formation, the accumulation of excess fibrous connective tissue (the process called fibrosis), leads to thickening of the walls, and causes reduced oxygen supply in the blood.
What is adenocarcinoma?
a type of cancerous tumor that can occur in several parts of the body.
Why does adenocarcinoma occur?
epithelial cells start dividing, switch on teens to replicate and make new adhesions. the epithelial cells should receive signal to stop proliferation. If you don't stop, carcinoma is produced because the epithelial cells don't know when to proliferate.
What is an example of cell communication?
When a blood vessel grows, they need more oxygen to be input into the organ. if the organ doesn't have enough oxygen, it causes ischemia. Organs have Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) receptor to stimulate blood vessel growth. e.g. solid tumours in cancer
What are lymphoid malignancies?
- Dysregulated immune system
Why is ventilation/perfusion needed?
Need it to be matching to make sure that the blood that goes back to the heart is oxygenated. This is in response to low oxygen
What ar other examples of cell communication and cell signalling?
- Knee jerk reflex
- Neutrophil hunting bacteria
What is a hormone that does long distance signalling?
Food -> increased blood glucose -> release of insulin from the pancreas (islets of langerhaans) -> insulin travels in the blood to stimulate glucose uptake into muscle, liver, fat cells
What effects outcome of signal?
1) half life of signalling molecule
2) distribution of signal
3) type of receptors
4) specificity of receptor for signal
5) Number of receptors activated
6) Type of intracellular signalling molecules recruited
What is cell communication essential for?
Survival of multi-cellular organisms
Which communication is short distance signalling?
Which communication is long distance signalling?
How does local distance cell signalling work?
- Contact: Gap Junctions & Adhesion Junction
- Cell cell signalling:
1) Paracrine (e.g. Histamine)
2) Autocrine (e.g. VEGF, IL-1)
3) Synpatic (e.g. ACh, NAD)
How does long distance cell signalling work?
Endocrine (e.g. Insulin, Adrenalin)
What is used in general cell signalling?
1) Signalling molecule (Ligand)
3) Signal transduction pathway
4) Cellular response
What are examples of signalling molecule?
What are examples of Receptor?
- Membrane bound
- or Intracellular (steroid hormone)
What are examples of Signal Transduction Pathway?
What are examples of Cellular response?
What are ligands?
molecules that binds to receptor. Once it binds to the receptor, the receptor shape is changed and this influences what the receptor can do