Autonomic and Endocrine 2 Stress Response L15 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Autonomic and Endocrine 2 Stress Response L15 Deck (62):
1

What are some key features of the Hypothalamus?

is a cluster hypothalamic nuclei
Major linked between the nervous and endocrine systems
9x hormones
Starting point of controlling the endocrine system
Secretes Releasing (production) and Inhibiting (production) hormones for the axon termini to control the Pituitary
Communicates with Pituitary via hormone release
hormones are released into the Hypophyseal Portal veins

2

What is between the Hypothalamus and Pituitary gland?

Connected by Infundibulum
Hypophyseal portal veins within

3

What is the Infundibulum?

connects between the Hypothalamus and Pituitary gland
- Releasing and Inhibitory hormones are released by the axon termini here

4

What is the Pituitary?

7x hormones
Controls the endocrine organs, via its hormone release into the BLOODSTREAM

5

What is the Hypophyseal portal veins?

Portal system between the 2x capillary beds.
Then hormones diffuse into ANTERIOR pituitary gland stream/cells and further through body
capillary bed - portal vein - capillary bed
Artery --> arteriole --> capillary --> portal veins --> capillary --> venules --> veins --> heart

6

What is the pathway of a substance through a portal systems?

Artery --> arterioles --> capillary --> portal vein --> capillary --> venules --> veins --> heart

7

What are the 4x things that the Hypothalamus function together to regulate?

Grandma GDMH
1. Growth
2. Development
3. Metabolism
4. Homeostasis (to maintain constant over body)

8

What are the components of the Adrenal Gland?

2x adrenal glands (one over each kidney)
1. Adrenal Medulla (middle/inner)
2. Adrenal Cortex ("bark"/outside)
-functionally and structurally different (different cellular structure)

9

What are some features of the 2x adrenal glands?

Triangular organ
sits on top of the kidney in the Retroperitoneal space
Made up of 2x Structurally (cellularly different) and functionally distinct areas
Cortex = outer = 80-90% of gland = majority
Highly vasculated
Produces steroid/Lipid soluble hormones

10

Where are the adrenal glands located?

On top of the kidney
in the Retroperitoneal space

11

What is the innervation of the Adrenal Medulla like?

Spinal cord --> Myelinated Sympathetic preganglionic neuron --> ACh ---> Adrenal Medulla's Modified Post ganglionic neurons which act as secretory cells which have No Axons --> can Release Neurotransmitters called NE and E --> NE and E secreted into Bloodstream --secs-mins--> effector tissue (smooth, heart and glands)
-last steps regarding NE facilitates and maintains levels of sympathetic activity/broader stress response

12

What are some features of the Adrenal Medulla?

Stimulated by: ACh form the preganglionic neurons
Hormones released: NE and E
Principal actions: Enhances the sympathetic nervous alarm response
a. Neurotransmitters are sent through the Blood stream to Circulate
b. Affects tissue in a more Prolonged manner
-slow affects - more sustained that the autonomic systems' activation
c. can enhance and extent the activation process
Alarm response Has to be switched on rally fast in order to DEAL WITH IMMEDIATE danger -thinking and use of Cerebral Cortex is NOT FAST ENOUGH, therefore this process is Automatic as to deal with the immediate threat
Spinal cord --> Myelinated Sympathetic preganglionic neuron --> ACh ---> Adrenal Medulla's Modified Post ganglionic neurons which act as secretory cells which have No Axons --> can Release Neurotransmitters called NE and E --> NE and E secreted into Bloodstream --secs-mins--> effector tissue (smooth, heart and glands)
-last steps regarding NE facilitates and maintains levels of sympathetic activity/broader stress response

13

Which part of the adrenal gland secretes two types of hormones?

Adrenal cortex
(think cortex = bigger = secretes two)?

14

What is the two types of hormones that the Adrenal cortex secretes?

Mineralocorticoids (e.g. aldosterone)
Glucocorticoids (e.g. cortisol)

15

What is Hormone A produced by the Adrenal Cortex?

MINERALOCORTICOIDS
"mineralo-" = to do with metal ions (controls balance of Na+ and K+ ions etc)
"corticoids" + made by the adrenal Cortex
e.g. ALDOSTERONE
Made and secretes from the adrenal Corte which REGULATES Metal Ion concentrations
Simulated by:
1. Increased K+ ions
2. Angiotensin II hormone in blood
Principal actions
1. Increased Na+
2. Increase Water reabsorption (alters Kidney filtration and it's selectivity when filtering certain ions)
3. Decreased K+ in blood
Overall results in: Increased BP Blood Pressure and BV Blood volume

16

What is an example of a mineralocorticoids?

aldosterone

17

What are the 2x things that the adrenal cortex is stimulated by in relation to mineralocorticoids?

1. Increased K+ ions
2. Angiotensin II in blood

18

What are the 3x Principal actions of the adrenal cortex in relation to mineralocorticoids?

1. Increased Na+ ions
2. Increased water H2O reabsorption (affects the filtration of the Kidney and its selectivity when filtering certain ions)
3. Decreased K+ in blood
Overall results in: Increased BP Blood pressure and BV Blood Volume

19

What is the pathway from the hypothalamus to the Pituitary + the Negative feedback effects on the Pituitary?

Hypothalamic neurosecretory cells releases CRH (corticotropin Releasing hormone)
-->hypophyseal portal vein -->
Anterior Pituitary gland releases ACTH (adrenal corticotropin hormone)
--> Adrenal Cortex
--> cortisol lipid soluble hormone
--3x pathways-->
1. Hormone Degradation / breakdown
2. Elevated levels of cortisol inhibits the release of ACTH from the anterior pituitary corticoTROPHS
3.elevated levels of cortisol inhibits the production of CRH Corticotropin Release Hormone by the Hypothalamus neurosecretory cells
-2x Feedback loops
-Negative Feedback control

20

What does CRH stand for?

Corticotropin Releasing Hormone

21

What does ACTH stand for?

Adreno Cortico Tropin Hormone

22

Where does CRH originate from?

Hypothalamic neurosecretory cells

23

Where does ACTH?

Anterior pituitary corticoTROPHS

24

Why does the cortisol pathway take more time?

This process involving the adrenal Cortex and Cortisol takes More time compared to the sympathetic release effect, as it is a purely hormonal driven process ( ms vs sec-min)

25

What is Hormone B produced by the Adrenal Cortex?

GLUCOCORTICOIDS
also called corticosteroids
"gluco" = glucose = metabolism
"corticoids" = made by the adrenal cortex
e.g. CORTISOL
Stimulated by: ACTH (AdrenoCorticoTropic Hormone) from the Pituitary gland and into the Portal system)
-Which itself is stimulated by CRH from the hypothalamic secretory cells (Corticotropin Releasing Hormone)
--> to adrenal cortex (cortisol)
--> blood stream
Principal actions:
1. Second part of the Resistance reaction to stress
-Increase up regulate processes
2. Reduce Tissue Damage
-decrease inflammation (otherwise would degrade too much tissue)
- depress/alter immune responses (as these immune responses can cause damage themselves)

26

What is another name for Glucocorticoids?

Corticosteroids

27

What is an example of a Glucocorticoid?

Cortisol

28

What is the adrenal cortex is stimulated by in relation to glucocorticoids?

ACTh
ACTH (AdrenoCorticoTropic Hormone) from the Pituitary gland and into the Portal system)
-Which itself is stimulated by CRH from the hypothalamic secretory cells (Corticotropin Releasing Hormone)
--> to adrenal cortex (cortisol)
--> blood stream

29

What are the 2x Principal actions of the Adrenal cortex in relation to Glucocorticoids?

1. End part of the Resistance reaction to stress
- up regulate processes
2. Reduce tissues damage
- decrease/dampen inflammation (otherwise would degrade too much tissue)
- depresses/alters immune responses (as these immune responses can cause damage themselves)

30

What are the 7 actions of Cortisol?

1. Increased Protein Breakdown -especially in muscles
2. Glycogenesis in the Liver
3. Lipolysis in Adipose Tissue
4. Altered/changed blood vessel sensitivity (around capillaries for vasoconstriction)
5. Anti-inflammatory (in order to limit tissue damage)
6. Alters /Depresses Immune responsiveness
7. Resistance to stress
Overall: All of these actions of cortisol are good in a limited way/time frame/beneficial in a TRANSIENT way (has to be HIGHLY CONTROLLED) but needs to be moderated. If in excess could be harmful. The CHANGING of a resistance reactions needs to be under a DIMMER CONTROL - to be able to able to up and down regulate the process (Negative Feedback Mechanism Control)

31

What is the general consensus with the Actions and Consequences of cortisol?

All good in a Limited way/time frame (in moderation)
All these actions are Beneficial in a TRANSIENT way (has to be HIGHLY CONTROLLED) but needs to be moderated
If in excess could be harmful
the CHANGING of a resistance reaction needs to be under a DIMMER CONTROL - to be able to up and down regulate the process (Negative Feedback Mechanism Control)

32

What does the "Resistance to stress" action of Cortisol involve?

Combats stress by Increased Glucose and Increased ATP breakdown (due to breaking down to building blocks)
Exemplary stresses are:
1. exercise
2. fasting
3. fright
4. temperature extremes
5. high altitude
6. bleeding
7. infection
8. surgery
9. trauma
10. disease

33

What are 10 examples of activities which instigate stress?

1. exercise
2. fasting
3. fright
4. temperature extremes
5. high altitude
6. bleeding
7. infection
8. surgery
9. trauma
10. disease

34

What does the "Alteration/depression of Immune Responsiveness" action of Cortisol involve?

Depresses the immune response due to high glucocorticoid (cortisol) concentration
done in order to Limit tissue Damage (short term)
At the Expense of Longer term Immune responses
-Note: Used Therapeutically following organ transplants to Retard(stop) graft rejection (delay/hold back)

35

What part of the Cortisol action and consequences can be used therapeutically?

"Alteration/depression of Immune Responsiveness"
Used Therapeutically following ORGAN TRANSPLANTS to Retard (stop) Graft rejection
Depresses the immune system response due to elevated cortisol concentrations, to Limit Tissue Damage (short term), at the expense of longer term immune responses

36

What does the "Anti-inflammatory in order to Limit Tissue Damage" action of Cortisol involve?

Inhibits WBC's White Blood Cells which participate in the inflammatory response
For 2x reasons:
1. to limit the tissue damage caused by them
2. Retard/slow Tissue Repair and Wound Healing
- Note don't want to slow down too much or to become long term as it will increase the person's susceptibility to infection and will Inhibit repair totally

37

What does the "Alteration/changed blood vessel sensitivity to vasoconstriction " action of Cortisol involve?

Blood vessels become More sensitive to Hormones which case vasoconstriction
leads to:
1. Decreased Elasticity
2. Increased BP Blood Pressure

38

What does the "Lipolysis of Adipose Tissue" action of Cortisol involve?

Breaks down Adipose tissue into Triglycerides and Fatty acids
Release Fatty acids from the adipose tissue --> Into Blood for availability
- are the Building Blocks for making Complex Lipids as Fatty Tissue can be Rebuilt

39

Which building block are formed/broken back into during the stress response/due to the action of cortisol?

1. Lipolysis. Adipose tissue --> Triglycerides and Fatty acids. Fatty acids are the building blocks for making complex Lipids (as fatty acids can be rebuilt)
2. Glycogenesis. Liver. Carbs, aa, and Lactic acid --> Glucose. as glucose are the building blocks used by Neurons and Othercells for ATP production
3. Protein Breakdown. Esp in muscle fibres. aa into bloodstream. --> synthesis of new proteins (to Reform Tissue) + ATP production

40

What does the "Glycogenesis in the Liver" action of Cortisol involve?

Liver
To break down and convert 1. Carbohydrates, 2. Aminoacids and 3. Lactic acid --> into Glucose
this Glucose is used by Neurons and Othercells for ATP production

41

What does the "Increased Protein Breakdown especially in muscles" action of Cortisol involve?

Protein Breakdown in Muscle Fibres
AA Aminoacids released into the bloodstream
These aa can be used for2x things
1. Synthesis of New Proteins (to reform tissue)
2. ATP production

42

What are the Neuroimmune links?

Activities are co-ordinated by the BI-DIRECTIONAL Communication between the Neuroendocrine and Immune system, which MODULATES each other to co-ordinate actions within out body
Via/3x Links between systems:
1. Autonomic Nerves
2. Hormones
3. Cytokines

43

What are the 3x links between the Neuroendocrine and Immune systems?

1. Autonomic Nerves
2. Hormones
3. Cytokines

44

What role do Autonomic Nerves play as NeuroImmune links?

Neuroendocrine --> Immune System
Sympathetic and Parasympathetic
Nervous system --> affecting Immune functions
- in More ways than cortisol
-Co-ordinates immunity
Autonomic nerves go to the SECONDARY 2 Lymphoid Organs (Lymph nodes and Spleen)
-Influences the way that Lymphocytes respond to/ are activating foreign materials and the way they produce antibody responses in order to deal with infectious ages
-Modulates immune activation/system

45

What are examples of the 2 Secondary Lymphoid organs used by autonomic nerves as Neuroimmune Links?

Lymph nodes
spleen

46

What role do Hormones play as NeuroImmune links?

Neuroendocrine --> Immunse system
e..g cortisol and others
Can Modulate Immune function
Change the balance of different immune responses (B cell and T cell)

47

What role do Cytokines play as NeuroImmune links?

Immune system --> Neuroendocrine system
Are Immune hormones
-the immune systems controls itself by using Cytokines
Also it influences the way that the nervous system functions (the nerve and brain function) via:
1. Communication
2. the way we Think/Feel
(affects 1. Immune system 2. Physiological changes 3. Neurological changes)

48

What does the Neuroendocrine system deal with?

What is Perceives to be threats
Co-ordinates immunity and Changes the balance of different responses (B or T cell)

49

What does the Immune system deal with?

Threats with infectious agents

50

What are features of the Cave Person Adaptation?

Evolved to be inducible
Involves the Short-Term Remedial action, changes caused due to changes with relationship to the world
Previously (as cave men) Mostly dealt with PHYSICAL danger
We now respond with the same physiology
Allows us to take remedial action
1. Threat Arousal:
-a. Blood (energy levels/patterns)
-b. Muscle (motor/muscle action)
-c. Vigilance (sensory acuity)
2. Dampens unnecessary
-a. Immunity
-b. Digestion

51

What are the 3x components of Threat Arousal in the Cave Person Adaptation?

Threat arousal:
1. Blood (energy levels/patterns)
2. Muscle (motor/muscle action)
3. Vigilance (sensory acuity)

52

What are the 2x components of Dampening in the Cave Person Adaptation?

Dampens Unnecessary
1. Immunity
2. Digestion

53

What are the two types of stress?

1. Eustress (acute)
2. Distress (chronic)

54

What is Eustress?

Positive
Acute
Stimulate and Motivate
-Prepares us to meet certain challenges
-helpful
-beneficial
-allows to change the physiology in order to deal with change
Acute - only at certain times you have certain challenges

55

What is Distress?

Negative
Chronic (less acute stress)
"Final exam in 8 weeks" - already start stressing
Chronic = Lifestyle
=More long term and general stresses
POTENTIALLY HARMFUL

56

What are features of the relationship between hostility and the heart?

Hostility is something that you can measure in people
some people have higher hostility than others
Increased hostility in a person, due to them constantly responding to threats and not letting those threats of , causing increased susceptibility and damage to the heart
Some people are HABITUALLY Hostile.
They have LONGTERM SYMPathetic activation, leading to adverse effects on their health
Heart has to work harder, as the capillaries are constricted, Leading to a greater Risk and Susceptibility of getting a Cardiac infarct (hear attack)

57

What is Stress Cardiomyopathy syndrome?

People with Very Over-activated stress response
They get heart symptoms which MIMIC a heart attach
ISNT a heart attack, but is very much like it
-example of this were increased rate of stress cardiomyopathy syndrome week of Chch earthquake
Illustrates, when there is a Increased Activation, or Increased sustaining stress response, Leads to physiological problems

58

What is the condition called when you experience symptoms which MIMIC that of a heart attack but it isn't actually a heart attack?

Stress Cardiomyopathy Syndrome

59

What is a summary of the 3x sections of the Stress response?

1. Alarm response:
Nerve (fast) response
SNS
Fight or Flight
2. Alarm Extension:
Nerve --> hormone
Adrenal Medulla
Secretion of NE and E
3. Resistance reaction (long term repair)
Purely hormonal route (slower)
adrenal Cortex
Cortisol effects

60

What are the 3x sections of the Stress Response?

1. Alarm Response
2. Alarm Extension
3. Resistance Reaction

61

What are the 5x characteristic symptoms of the Alarm response?

1. Pounding heart
2. Cold sweat
3. Pale skin
4. Goose flesh
5. Rapid breathing

62

What are the 4x characteristic symptoms of the Resistance Reaction?

1. Increased Glucose, fatty acids and amino acids
2. Increased sensitivity of Vessels
3. Reduced inflammation
4. Immune suppression- reduced immunity