Autonomic Nervous System (plus pharmacology of ANS and NMJ) Flashcards Preview

Medicine Term One > Autonomic Nervous System (plus pharmacology of ANS and NMJ) > Flashcards

Flashcards in Autonomic Nervous System (plus pharmacology of ANS and NMJ) Deck (91):
1

What nerves does the autonomic NS respond from

Efferent nerves (motor neurons)

2

Whats Voluntary, somatic or autonomic

somatic

3

Whats a ganglion

group of nerve cell bodies linked by synapse passing on AP O----C O-----C

4

Whats the swelling on a nerve fibre

Ganglion

5

Somatic differences to Autonomic

Specialised NMJ, isotropic receptors, always excited the cell,

6

What does Somatic NS always have

a large endplate potential

7

What receptors do Autonomic NS have

Metabotropic

8

what are Metabotropic receptors

G protein-coupled receptors

9

What does Autonomic system split into

Parasympathetic and sympathetic

10

Parasympathetic where does ganglia lie

Ganglia lies closer to target, therefore long preganglionic fibres

11

Postganglionic fibre longer found in

Sympathetic

12

Sympathetic system exits from

Thoriac and Lumnar regions of the spinal chord T1-12 L1-2

13

White rams =

preganglionic fibres

14

Grey rams =

postganglionic fibres

15

Ramus

Communication branch

16

All ganglion fibres activated at same time by

convergence and divergence

17

ACH works on what receptors

cholingeric

18

Examples of cholingeric receptors

Nicotinic and muscarnic

19

Parasympathetic release what NT at preganglionic fibre on to what receptor

ACH on to nicotinic

20

A muscarnic receptor is

G protein coupled

21

Sympathetic post ganglionic fibre releases whats NT on to what receptor

Noradrenaline on to either alpha or Beta receptor

22

Parasympathetic post ganglionic fibre releases whats NT on to what receptor

ACH on muscarnic receptors

23

At a preganglionic fibre ACH is released on to what receptor into what NS

Parasympathetic and Sympathetic

24

Alpha 1 receptors cause

Contraction

25

Beta 2 receptors cause

Dilation

26

Noradrenaline NT only acts on what receptors

adregeneric

27

Examples of adregenric receptors

Alpha and Beta

28

Whats are Muscarnic receptors responsible for

smooth muscle

29

Parasympathetic NS exits spinal chord from

cranial

30

Sympathetic NS acts on salivary gland release what NT instead

ACH instead of noradrenaline

31

Non adregenric non cholingeric receptors (NANC) examples

Peptided and Nitric Oxide

32

Whats do NANC do

are correlated or released on their own

33

Sympathetic NS can release noradrenaline directly into (what does the show)

the blood, hormonal properties

34

Cholineric receptors are

ionotropic type receptors with an integral ion channel

35

Cillary Muscles contract in the eye, constricting pupil this is due to

ACH acting on muscarnic receptor in parasymathetic NS

36

For the Eye to focus close up

Cillary muscle contract and radial muscle dilate

37

The work of the Cillary muscle and the radial muscle in the eye is called

muscarinic anatgonist

38

Eyes Dilate and focus far away by

noradrenlaine acting on B2 to relax the lens and A1 constricting the iris, dilating pupil allowing more light in to see far away

39

What makes the heart contract

pacemaker cells depolarise

40

Whats increase heart rate

noradrenaline acting on the beta receptors

41

Parasympathetic NS has little effect on what in the heart

strength of hearts contractions

42

B2 agonsits in the lungs e.g. and function

Salbutamol, dilates airways

43

Parasympathetic NS on the eye activates and causes what to the spinchter

Activates muscarinic receptors on sphincter muscle
Contracting & makes pupil smaller

44

Parasymatheric has what effect on Blood Vessels

No effect

45

Sympathetic NS alpha receptors cause what to happen in BV

Cause smooth muscle to contract in blood vessels

46

What cause the BV to dilate and increase blood flow

Noradrenaline acting on Beta receptors

47

why due to Tonic activity does parasympathetic have little effect

means there is always an ongoing activity hence why parasympathetic has little activity e.g. smooth muscle always a little but contacted

48

Parasympathetic on the Gut

muscarnic receptors on gut wall increase gut mobility and muscarnic receptors on pancreas increase enzyme secretion

49

Single intervention means

Controlled by tonic activity

50

sympathetic system stimulates what two procedures in energy stores and increase what

glycogenolyis & gluconeogenesis
Increases lipolysis

51

what is dual intervention

innervated by both sympathetic and parasympathetic fibers

52

Example of dual intervention

Salivary gland, Parasymapthetic releases watery solution whilst sympathetic releases tick secretion rich in enzymes

53

What do Beta receptors trigger in the bladder

relax smooth muscle of bladder wall, therefore reducing pressure

54

sympathetic NS alpha receptors in the bladder cause

contract smooth muscle of sphincter and prevent urinations

55

Whats controls the autonomic NS

Autonomic reflexes hypothalamus

56

examples of autonomic receptors

baroreceptors detect blood pressure then influence activity

57

What does hypothalamus do

coordinates autonomic, somatic and endocrine activity in a defence response

58

Dual Intervention of reproductive tract

sympathetic causes ejaculation as Parasympathtic causes erection

59

A dual intervention has

complimentary effects

60

How can you stop efficiency of NMJ synapse

stop the Ach being packaged into the vesicles
Block Voltage gated calcium channels
Block vesicles fusing with receptors
Competitive antagonist stop ach activating receptor

61

Whats blocks choline transport

hemicholinium

62

what does black widow spider toxin

blocks the voltage gated Ca2+ channels

63

Depolarising nicotinic receptors does what

continue to open cells, keeping cell depolorised therefore can't fire AP, (short lasting action, can cause damage)

64

Increases activity of NMJ synapse

Prolong AP,
Block acetylcholinesterase

65

How do you prolong an AP in NMJ Synapse

Increase the number of calcium ions, increasing response

66

Whats happens when you block acetylcholinesterase

ach hangs around synaptic cleft therefore activates more receptors and increases transmissions

67

why would you want to block NMJ synapse

paralyse patients during surgery or ECT

68

Non-depolarising or depolarising blockers used for paralysis during

surgical procedures
electroconvulsive therapy
controlling spasms in tetanus

69

Botulinum toxin used for

treating muscle spasm
cosmetic procedures

70

Anti-cholinesterases used for

treating myasthenic syndromes
reversing action of non-depolarising blockers
countering botulinum poisoning

71

what includes both the sympathetic and the parasympathetic systems

connections between the preganglionic and the postganglionic autonomic fibres ach--nicotinic

72

Whats receptors is present more in ganglionic receptor than NMJ receptor

nicotinic

73

what is ganglia sensitive to that blocks ach channel

hexamethoneuns

74

Why aren't there any clinical applications to modifying ganglionic transmission

as drugs would modulate both sympathetic and parasympathetic ganglionic transmission, therefore producing a range of complex signals

75

whats do most therapeutically drugs target

postsynaptic muscarinic receptors

76

Muscarinic agonists and antagonists

mimic or block effects caused by parasympathetic ns

77

whats is glaucoma

raised intraocular pressure

78

alpha agonists work the same usually as

beta blockers

79

what do alpha agonists and beta blockers do in glaucoma

reduce the production of the aqueous humour fluid in the eyeball

80

For glaucoma what does a muscarinic agonist do

contract the ciliary muscle supporting the lens,contract sphincter muscle of cell and seem to open up the trabecular network so aqueous humour drains through

81

How can you manipulate postganglionic sympathetic transmission

By manipulating release of noradrenaline and adrenergic

82

How do you inhibit postsynaptic sympathetic transmissions

Block enzyme producing noradrenaline
Block transporter that fills vesicles
introduce a fals transmitter
Block alpha/beta postsynaptic receptors
activate inhibitory presynaptic autoreceptors
inhibit volatge gate calcium channel

83

What enzyme is blocked in the production of noradrenaline

dopadecarboxylase (dopa-dopamine)

84

increase efficiency of postganglionic sympathetic transmission

stimulate noradrenaline release
inhibit uptake of noradrenaline from cleft back into neurones
Activate postsynaptic receptors

85

Indirectly triggers the release noradrenaline is called

sympathomimetics

86

what does cocaine do

inhibits uptake carrier leaving noradrenaline in synpatic cleft to activate postsynaptic receptors

87

Noradrenaline breakdown

transmitter unactivated and only broken down in cells

88

what are alpha 2 agonists clinical applications

treatment of hypertension

89

what are beta2 agonists clinical applications

treatment of asthma e.g. salbutamol

90

what are alpha 1 agonists clinical applications

used as decongestants and to dilate the pupil

91

what are beta1 antagonists clinical applications

treatment of hypertension, angina and glaucoma