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Flashcards in Autonomics of Respiration Deck (24):
1

Sympathetic Receptors

1. Nicotinic receptors (ACh) --> located on adrenal medulla --> cause actiavtion and release of Epi
2. Alpha 1 receptors (Epi=NE>>>>iso) --> contraction of VSM --> stimulates phospholipase C --> IP3 --> elevated Ca2+
3. Beta-2 receptors (iso>Epi>>>>>NE) --> relaxation of smooth muscle, glycogenolysis (Epi is natural stimulus for B-2 receptors in lung)

2

Location in body with greatest amount of nicotinic receptors?

Skeletal muscle --> cause contraction

3

Parasympathetic Receptors

1. Nicotinic receptors (ACh) --> located on postsynaptic surface of postganglionic nerve --> causes activation of postganglionic nerve
2. Muscarinic receptors (ACh) --> all end-organ responses --> activate PLC or suppress AC

4

Where do parasympathetic nerves in lung originiate?

Medulla Oblongata

5

Where do sympathetic nerves to lung originate?

Thoracic Spine

6

Sympathetics function

constrict vasculature via alpha 1 receptor (decongestants)
dilate bronchioles via beta-2 receptors

7

Parasympathetics function

constrict bronchioles via muscarinic receptors and increase secretions
(anti-muscarinics dilate bronchioles --> "tropiums")

8

Most common initial treatment for asthma?

Albuterol (SABA)

9

Beta-2 Agonists

All given via inhalation --> restricts activity to lung tissue --> good
Major S.E. = tachycardia and palpitations (beta-1), tremor (beta-2), headache

10

Epi

- constricts vasculature, relaxes bronchioles
- used for anaphylaxis
- metabolized by MAO, COMT

11

Iso

- synthetic catecholamine stimulated beta-receptors
- relaxes beta-2 receptors
- metabolizes COMT not MAO

12

Ephedrine

partial beta-2 agonists (treat bronchospasm)
- releases NE which has direct effects (increase BP, relaxes bronchioles)

13

Pseudoephedrine

stereoisomer of ephedrine commonly used to treat nasal congestion

14

Phenylephrine

alpha 1 agonist

15

Muscarinic receptor antagonists

Ipratropium, tiotropium
bronchodilator and dries up secretions

16

Phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitor

Roflumilast --> bronchodilator for COPD --> improves FEV1
major side effect --> Nausea

17

alpha blockers

cause mucosal stuffiness --> block alpha 1 receptors in vasculature

18

beta blockers

increase airway resistance (bronchoconstriction) --> particularly in asthmatics (olol's)

19

Based on efficacy of anatagonists, which of following are likely to cause asthma?

NOT HISTAMINE!!!!
- leukotriene more likely

20

Zafirlukast effective for asthma, whats causing asthma?

Leukotriene

21

If diphenhydramine is not effective in asthma, asthma most likely?

Not caused by histamine!!!!

22

Which is best for treating anaphylaxis

EPI --> constricts vasculature via alpha 1 and relaxes bronchioles via beta-2

23

Best decongestant?

Alpha 1 agonist --> phenylephrine

24

Most likely mechnism for beneficial effects of ipratropium in COPD?

bronchodilation (little)
suppressing secretions