Flashcards in Avian Midterm Deck (82):
Give an example of a Passeriforme
Give an example of a Psittaciforme
Give an example of a Galliforme
Give an example of a Columbiforme
What order does the Owl belong to?
What is the longest and narrowest of feathers?
What is the Propatagium?
Triangular fold of skin from the shoulder to the carpus, forming the leading edge of the wing
What 3 components make up the pelvis girdle?
Ischium, pubis and ilium fused together
Why are caudal limbs fused distally?
To aid in impact absorption
What is the tarsometatarsus?
Fusion of tarsal bones 2, 3 and 4 to the corresponding metatarsal bones
Describe what is meant by anisodactyl? Give an example of a bird with it.
Toe position on the foot - 3 digits in the front and 1 in the back. Example: Songbirds, waterfowl, raptors
Describe what is meant by Zygodactyl? Give an example of a bird with it
Toe position on the foot - 2 digits in the front and 2 in the back, digit 1 is the shortest
What is the term for Digit 1?
What are 4 main purposes of Feathers?
4. Waterproof (in some cases)
What is an aptera?
What are the 6 main types of Feathers?
What colour of feathers does Melanin pigment produce?
Brown, grey, black
Most birds have ______ primary feathers (how many)
How often do most birds molt?
1-2x per year
What is the normal temperature for most birds? At which point of hyperthermia is the temperature fatal?
40-41 degrees C. Fatal at 46 degrees C
Birds do not have sweat glands. How do they dissipate heat?
Flapping, fluttering and panting
True or false: Birds have a slower metabolic rate to maintain body temperature during flight.
False. Birds have a faster metabolic rate to maintain body temp during flight
What is meant by the term pneumatic bones?
Which bones are pneumatic?
Skull, humerus, clavicle, keel, pelvic girdle, lumbar vertebrae
What is the rhampotheca?
Keratin layer of the beak
What are the proper terms for mandible and maxilla of the beak?
Mandible - gnathotheca
Maxilla - rhinothecia
Why is the medullary cavity different in females than males?
To suit needs of eggshell formation
How do birds' cervical vertebrae differ to aid in landing impact?
Sigmoid (S) shaped neck
What is the pygostyle?
Coccygeal vertebrae fused to create tail
What is a birds sternum called?
What is the glenoid cavity?
Coracoid and scapula together
True or false: The lungs surround the heart the same as mammals
False. The lungs are behind the heart.
True or false: The heart is 50% smaller than other mammals of the same size
False. The heart is 50-100% larger than other mammals of the same size.
Why is the heart bigger than other mammals of the same size?
For high oxygen demands
Which 2 types of birds are the only ones with lymph nodes?
Ducks and geese
What is the purpose of the operculum in each nare?
Protect from foreign bodies
True or false: The epiglottis is bigger than most mammals to prevent foreign bodies
False. They have no epiglottis
What is the Syrinx?
Lower larynx/voice organ in birds
What is the best ET tube to use for birds?
Uncuffed - prone to tracheal stenosis
How many air sacs do birds have on average?
Describe the process of first respiration
- Ribcage extends out, sternum extends down
- Negative pressure causes air to be sucked in via nares and pass through lungs to caudal air sacs
- Abdominal air sacs expand, pulling air in
- As exhalation occurs intercostal muscles are needed as the abdomen contracts, forcing air from sacs into lungs where gas exchange occurs
Describe the process of Second respiration?
- Bird inhales again, air is forced out of lungs and stale air full of Carbon Dioxide is moved to cranial air sacs
- As exhales, interior air sacs contract, driving air out of nares
What is the term of the part that protects the trachea from foreign bodies?
What is the Crop?
Dilation of the esophagus used for food storage when stomach is full. Also generates milk
What is the proventriculus?
The first "stomach" organ which food enters once leaving the esophagus. Responsible for secreting digestive enzymes.
What is the Ventriculus?
Second stomach, aids in protein digestion
Green coloured urates can be indicative of what?
Liver disease due to the main pigment being Biliverdin rather than bilirubin
Where does feces collect?
In the coprodeum
Where does urine collect?
In the urodeum
Where does urine and feces exit?
Where do the urine/feces meet before exiting the vent?
How does the urinary system work without a bladder?
Ureters transfer uric acid from kidneys and empty straight into the urodeum
What role in egg formation does the vagina play?
None. Only responsible for egg storage
Where are the testes located?
Next to the kidneys
How big can testes get during breeding season?
Several hundred times regular size
Which species have functional penises?
What is a precocial newborn?
- Eyes open
- Thick coats of natal down
- Leaves nest in a few days
What is a altricial newborn?
- Eyes closed
- Requires weeks of nuturing (same)
For what reason to 2newborn birds have a Bursa? What happens to it during adulthood?
To provide antibodies. As an adult it atrophies
What are the 3 main fungal disease effecting Psittascines?
Aspergillus, Candida, Macrorhabdus
What are 2 main signs of Dyspnea
Tail bobbing and open mouth breathing
What are 4 clinical signs of Trichomoniasis?
- weight loss
What avian virus is ABV?
True or false: With treatment, the prognosis of ABV is good
Fake news. It is typically fatal
What is PBFDV virus? What is the prognosis with treatment?
Psittacine Beak and Feather Disease Virus. There is no prevention or treatment - fatal.
How can you tell if a bird's perch is the proper size?
Toes should wrap 2/3 around the perch but not touch
What is the disadvantage of keeping birds inside when it comes to lighting?
Birds require UVA and UVB rays. UVB rays cannot penetrate windows.
What is the ideal day:night ratio for birds mental and physical health?
1:1, 12 hours of each
True or false: Birds love showers/baths and it should be a part of their regular enrichment.
What enrichment strategy improved behaviour problems by increasing physical activity, mental stimulation and relieving stress?
Foraging for food
How much water to birds need a day on average?
How do you calculate dehydration defecits?
Body weight (kg) x dehydration = deficit in mL. Add this to daily maintenance for 1-2 days.
How much blood can you take from a bird? (Formula)
Body weigh (g) x 10%
What is the difference between Basal and Maintenance energy requirements?
Basal - based on metabolic rate to carry out basic life functions
Maintenance - basal functions + additional functions like temperature regulation and foraging
How do you calculate BER?
(Energy factor)x(Weight in kg) ^0.75
Example: 1.2 kg macaw is (78)x(1.2)^0.75 = 89.43 kcal or 90kcal
What is the energy factor for Passeriformes? What about non-passeriformes?
P - 129
Non P - 78
How do you calculate MER?
BER x energy factor = MER kcal/day
Pellets should make up what % of diet?
What are some toxic foods for birds?
Chocolate, avocado, tomato, mushroom, onion, garlic, milk products, apple seeds
What is the best tool for tube feeding?
Metal gavage tubes
What are the 4 most common issues seen in backyard chickens?
- Insufficient water quality/amount
- Prolonged storage of feed, resulting in deterioration of nutritional value
- Dilution of dietary nutrients with a cheaper feed
- Feeding wrong life-stage diet