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Flashcards in Avian Midterm Deck (82):
1

Give an example of a Passeriforme

songbirds

2

Give an example of a Psittaciforme

Parrots, budgies

3

Give an example of a Galliforme

Chickens, turkeys

4

Give an example of a Columbiforme

Pigeons, doves

5

What order does the Owl belong to?

Strigiformes

6

What is the longest and narrowest of feathers?

Primary feathers

7

What is the Propatagium?

Triangular fold of skin from the shoulder to the carpus, forming the leading edge of the wing

8

What 3 components make up the pelvis girdle?

Ischium, pubis and ilium fused together

9

Why are caudal limbs fused distally?

To aid in impact absorption

10

What is the tarsometatarsus?

Fusion of tarsal bones 2, 3 and 4 to the corresponding metatarsal bones

11

Describe what is meant by anisodactyl? Give an example of a bird with it.

Toe position on the foot - 3 digits in the front and 1 in the back. Example: Songbirds, waterfowl, raptors

12

Describe what is meant by Zygodactyl? Give an example of a bird with it

Toe position on the foot - 2 digits in the front and 2 in the back, digit 1 is the shortest

13

What is the term for Digit 1?

Hallux

14

What are 4 main purposes of Feathers?

1. Insulation
2. Protection
3. Aerodynamics
4. Waterproof (in some cases)

15

What is an aptera?

Featherless tract

16

What are the 6 main types of Feathers?

- Contour
- Down
- Semiplumes
- Filoplumes
- Powder
- Bristles

17

What colour of feathers does Melanin pigment produce?

Brown, grey, black

18

Most birds have ______ primary feathers (how many)

10

19

How often do most birds molt?

1-2x per year

20

What is the normal temperature for most birds? At which point of hyperthermia is the temperature fatal?

40-41 degrees C. Fatal at 46 degrees C

21

Birds do not have sweat glands. How do they dissipate heat?

Flapping, fluttering and panting

22

True or false: Birds have a slower metabolic rate to maintain body temperature during flight.

False. Birds have a faster metabolic rate to maintain body temp during flight

23

What is meant by the term pneumatic bones?

Hollow

24

Which bones are pneumatic?

Skull, humerus, clavicle, keel, pelvic girdle, lumbar vertebrae

25

What is the rhampotheca?

Keratin layer of the beak

26

What are the proper terms for mandible and maxilla of the beak?

Mandible - gnathotheca
Maxilla - rhinothecia

27

Why is the medullary cavity different in females than males?

To suit needs of eggshell formation

28

How do birds' cervical vertebrae differ to aid in landing impact?

Sigmoid (S) shaped neck

29

What is the pygostyle?

Coccygeal vertebrae fused to create tail

30

What is a birds sternum called?

The keel

31

What is the glenoid cavity?

Coracoid and scapula together

32

True or false: The lungs surround the heart the same as mammals

False. The lungs are behind the heart.

33

True or false: The heart is 50% smaller than other mammals of the same size

False. The heart is 50-100% larger than other mammals of the same size.

34

Why is the heart bigger than other mammals of the same size?

For high oxygen demands

35

Which 2 types of birds are the only ones with lymph nodes?

Ducks and geese

36

What is the purpose of the operculum in each nare?

Protect from foreign bodies

37

True or false: The epiglottis is bigger than most mammals to prevent foreign bodies

False. They have no epiglottis

38

What is the Syrinx?

Lower larynx/voice organ in birds

39

What is the best ET tube to use for birds?

Uncuffed - prone to tracheal stenosis

40

How many air sacs do birds have on average?

8-9

41

Describe the process of first respiration

- Ribcage extends out, sternum extends down
- Negative pressure causes air to be sucked in via nares and pass through lungs to caudal air sacs
- Abdominal air sacs expand, pulling air in
- As exhalation occurs intercostal muscles are needed as the abdomen contracts, forcing air from sacs into lungs where gas exchange occurs

42

Describe the process of Second respiration?

- Bird inhales again, air is forced out of lungs and stale air full of Carbon Dioxide is moved to cranial air sacs
- As exhales, interior air sacs contract, driving air out of nares

43

What is the term of the part that protects the trachea from foreign bodies?

Choanal slit

44

What is the Crop?

Dilation of the esophagus used for food storage when stomach is full. Also generates milk

45

What is the proventriculus?

The first "stomach" organ which food enters once leaving the esophagus. Responsible for secreting digestive enzymes.

46

What is the Ventriculus?

Second stomach, aids in protein digestion

47

Green coloured urates can be indicative of what?

Liver disease due to the main pigment being Biliverdin rather than bilirubin

48

Where does feces collect?

In the coprodeum

49

Where does urine collect?

In the urodeum

50

Where does urine and feces exit?

The vent

51

Where do the urine/feces meet before exiting the vent?

Proctodeum

52

How does the urinary system work without a bladder?

Ureters transfer uric acid from kidneys and empty straight into the urodeum

53

What role in egg formation does the vagina play?

None. Only responsible for egg storage

54

Where are the testes located?

Next to the kidneys

55

How big can testes get during breeding season?

Several hundred times regular size

56

Which species have functional penises?

Ostrich, flamingo

57

What is a precocial newborn?

- Eyes open
- Thick coats of natal down
- Leaves nest in a few days
Example: chickens

58

What is a altricial newborn?

- Eyes closed
- Featherless
- Requires weeks of nuturing (same)
Example: Passerines

59

For what reason to 2newborn birds have a Bursa? What happens to it during adulthood?

To provide antibodies. As an adult it atrophies

60

What are the 3 main fungal disease effecting Psittascines?

Aspergillus, Candida, Macrorhabdus

61

What are 2 main signs of Dyspnea

Tail bobbing and open mouth breathing

62

What are 4 clinical signs of Trichomoniasis?

- regurgitation
- dysphagia
- weight loss
- listlessness/lethargy

63

What avian virus is ABV?

Avian Bornavirus

64

True or false: With treatment, the prognosis of ABV is good

Fake news. It is typically fatal

65

What is PBFDV virus? What is the prognosis with treatment?

Psittacine Beak and Feather Disease Virus. There is no prevention or treatment - fatal.

66

How can you tell if a bird's perch is the proper size?

Toes should wrap 2/3 around the perch but not touch

67

What is the disadvantage of keeping birds inside when it comes to lighting?

Birds require UVA and UVB rays. UVB rays cannot penetrate windows.

68

What is the ideal day:night ratio for birds mental and physical health?

1:1, 12 hours of each

69

True or false: Birds love showers/baths and it should be a part of their regular enrichment.

True

70

What enrichment strategy improved behaviour problems by increasing physical activity, mental stimulation and relieving stress?

Foraging for food

71

How much water to birds need a day on average?

50-100 ml/kg/day

72

How do you calculate dehydration defecits?

Body weight (kg) x dehydration = deficit in mL. Add this to daily maintenance for 1-2 days.

73

How much blood can you take from a bird? (Formula)

Body weigh (g) x 10%

74

What is the difference between Basal and Maintenance energy requirements?

Basal - based on metabolic rate to carry out basic life functions
Maintenance - basal functions + additional functions like temperature regulation and foraging

75

How do you calculate BER?

(Energy factor)x(Weight in kg) ^0.75

Example: 1.2 kg macaw is (78)x(1.2)^0.75 = 89.43 kcal or 90kcal

76

What is the energy factor for Passeriformes? What about non-passeriformes?

P - 129
Non P - 78

77

How do you calculate MER?

BER x energy factor = MER kcal/day

78

Pellets should make up what % of diet?

80-90%

79

What are some toxic foods for birds?

Chocolate, avocado, tomato, mushroom, onion, garlic, milk products, apple seeds

80

What is the best tool for tube feeding?

Metal gavage tubes

81

What are the 4 most common issues seen in backyard chickens?

- Insufficient water quality/amount
- Prolonged storage of feed, resulting in deterioration of nutritional value
- Dilution of dietary nutrients with a cheaper feed
- Feeding wrong life-stage diet

82

Why should waterfowl be fed in the water?

Their beaks are designed to be more dextrous in water