Axillary/Breast Region - Lecture Notes Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Axillary/Breast Region - Lecture Notes Deck (131):
1

The anterior boundary of the axillary region is formed by what muscles? (x2)

Pectoralis major
Pectoralis minor

2

The medial boundary of the axillary region is formed by what muscles? (x2)

Ribs
Serratus anterior

3

The posterior boundary of the axillary region is formed by what muscles? (x3)

Latissimus dorsi
Teres major
Subscapularis

4

What does the the axillary region contain? (x4)

Axillary artery and vein
Lymphatic tissue, nodes/vessels
Brachialplexus
Fat

5

Brachialplexus function?

Entire nerve supply to U.L.

6

The brachialplexus is made up of what spinal nerves? (x5)

C5-C8, T1

7

Function of the axillary artery and vein?

Blood supply to the U.L.

8

Function of lymphatic tissue, nodes/vessels.

Drains the anterior chest wall and U.L.

9

How is the breast defined?

Group of modified sweat glands packed in fat supported by fibrous ligaments which are borrowed from local superficial fascia, covered by dead skin

10

The breast is susceptible to what kind of changes?

Neoplastic changes (cancer)

11

Growth of the breast occurs due to or through?

"Phases of activity"

12

What is the definition of mammary gland?

Accessory organ of the female reproductive system located in breast

13

What are mammary glands a type of?

Modified sweat glands

14

What are fibrocystic changes?

Cysts associated with ducts

15

What is a fibrous cyst?

A non-cancerous lump that moves with palpation

16

What is the areola?

Pigmented skin on the nipples

17

Where are breast carcenomas most commonly found?

In the upper lateral quadrant in axillary lymph nodes

18

What is the function of the parasternal lymph nodes?

To circulate/collect drainage from the lungs, other breast and liver

19

What do the suspensory ligaments do?

Connects the skin of the breast to the deep fascia

20

What does the axiohumeral division connect?

The axial skeleton directly to the humerus

21

What is the axiohumeral joint referred to as?

The "true shoulder joint"

22

Where does the axiohumeral division arise from?

Deep fascia of the back that has a broad aponeurosis of attachment

23

The axiohumeral division forms what part of the arm pit?

The posterior folds of the arm pit

24

Where do the posterior folds of the axiohumeral division insert?

On the intertubercular groove of the humerus

25

What is the function of the axiohumeral division?

Extension of the arm
Adduction and medial rotation of the humerus

26

Where does the Latissimus Dorsi originate?

S.P. of T7-L5
Lumbodorsal fascia
Crest of ilium
Lower 4 ribs

27

Where does the Latissimus Dorsi insert?

Intertubercular groove of the humeru

28

What nerve innervates Latissimus Dorsi?

Thoracodorsal nerve

29

What are the actions of the Latissimus Dorsi?

Adducts arm
Medial rotation of stm
Draws arm posteriorly (extends shoulder)

30

What are the heads of the Pectoralis Major muscle?

Clavicular head
Sternal head

31

Where does the Clavicular Head of the Pectoralis Major originate?

Medial half of clavicle

32

Where does the Sternal Head of the Pectoralis Major originate?

Sternum
Costal cartilage

33

Where do the Clavicular and Sternal Heads insert?

Lateral lip of bicepital groove of humerus

34

What nerves innervate both heads of the Pectoralis Major?

Lateral pectoral nerve
Medial pectoral nerve

35

What are the actions of the Pectoralis Major?

Adducts arm
Medial rotation of arm
(Clavicular Head) Flexion of arm
(Sternal head) Extension of arm

36

What does the axioscapular division connect?

The axial skeleton to the scapula

37

Where does the axioscapular division have extensive attachments?

Back of skull
Nuchal ligament
S.P. of T1-T12

38

What actions do the muscles of the axioscapular division have in common?

All adduct to a certain extent

39

Where does the axioscapular division have little attachment

To the clavicle and the acromion process

40

What parts make up the axioscapular division?

Upper
Lower
Middle

41

Where does the upper part of the axioscapular attach?

Acromion spine of the scapula

42

What are the functions of the upper part of the axioscapular division?

Upward rotator of glenoid fossa
Elevates scapula

43

What are the functions of the middle part of the axioscapular division?

Adducts scapula

44

What are the functions of the lower part of the axioscapular division?

Upwardly rotates scapula

45

Where does the lower part of the axioscapular attach?

Medial spine of the scapula

46

What nerve innervates the muscles of the lower part of the axioscapular division?

Accessory nerve

64

Where does the Trapezius originate?

External occipital protuberance
Ligamentum nuchae
S.P. of T1-T12

65

Where does the Trapezius insert?

Acromion process of scapula
Spine of scapula
Lateral 1/3 of clavicle

66

Where does the Subscapularis originate?

Subscapular fossa

67

Where does the Subscapularis insert?

Lesser tubercle of humerus

68

What nerves innervate Subscapularis?

Upper subscapular nerve
Lower subscapular nerve

69

What are the actions of the Subscapularis?

Medial rotation of arm
Adduction of arm

70

What are the Heads of the Deltoid muscle?

Clavicular head
Acromial head
Spinal head

70

Where does the Supraspinatus originate?

Supraspinous fossa

71

Where does the Clavicular Head of the Deltoid originate?

Lateral 1/3 of clavicle

71

Where does the Supraspinatus insert?

Greater tubercle of humerus

72

Where does the Acromial Head of the Deltoid originate?

Acromion process

72

What nerve innervates Supraspinatus?

Subscapular nerve

73

Where does the Spinal Head of the Deltoid originate?

Scapular head

73

What is the action of the Supraspinatus?

Abduction of arm
(1st 90 degrees)

74

Where do all Heads of the Deltoid insert?

Deltoid tuberosity of humerus

74

Where does the Infraspinatus originate?

Infraspinous fossa

75

What nerve innervates all of the Heads of the Deltoid?

Axillary Nerve

75

Where does the Infraspinatus insert?

Greater tubercle of humerus

76

What are the actions of the Clavicular Head of the Deltoid?

Medial rotation of arm
Flexion of the arm

76

What nerve innervates Infraspinatus?

Suprascapular nerve

77

What is the action of the Acromial Head of the Deltoid?

Abducts the arm

77

What is the action of the Infraspinatus?

Lateral rotation of humerus

78

What are the actions of the Spinal Head of the Deltoid?

Lateral rotation of the arm
Extension of the arm

78

What function does the Scapulohumeral divison serve?

Gives shoulder joint strength as a part of the rotator cuff

79

Where does the Teres Major originate?

Inferior angle of scapula
Lateral border of scapula

79

What is the Scapulohumeral division also referred to as?

The "intrinsic shoulder muscles"

80

Where does the Teres Major insert?

Medial lip of the bicipital groove of the humerus

80

What are characteristics of the "intrinsic shoulder muscles?"

They originate and insert within the confines of the shoulder

81

What nerve innervates Teres Major?

Lower subscapular nerve

81

Where does the Trapezius originate?

External occipital protuberance
Ligamentum nuchae
S.P. of T1-T12

82

What are the actions of the Teres Major?

Medial rotation of arm
Adducts arm
Extends arm

82

Where does the Teres Minor originate?

Lateral border of the scapula

82

What nerve innervates Trapezius?

Accessory nerve (IX)

83

Where does the Teres Minor insert?

Greater tubercle of humerus

83

What are the actions of the Trapezius?

Adduction of scapula
Upward rotation of glenoid fossa
Upper elevates scapula
Lower depresses scapula

84

What nerve innervates Teres Minor?

Axillary Nerve

84

Where does the Levator Scapula originate?

T.P. of C1-C4

85

What is the action of the Teres Minor?

Adduction/lateral rotation of arm

85

Where does the Levator Scapula insert?

Superior medial border of scapula

86

What nerve innervates Levator Scapula?

Dorsal scapular nerve

87

What are the actions of the Levator Scapula?

Elevates scapula
Tilts glenoid fossa down

88

Where do the Rhomboids originate?

S.P. of C7-T5

89

Where do the Rhomboids insert?

Medial border of scapula
(below and above spine)

90

What nerve innervates the Rhomboids?

Dorsal scapular nerve

91

What are the actions of the Rhomboids?

Adduction of scapula
Rotates glenoid fossa down

92

Where does the Pectoralis Minor originate?

3rd, 4th and 5th ribs

93

Where does the Pectoralis Minor insert?

Corocoid process of scapula

94

What nerves innervate Pectoralis Minor?

Lateral pectoral nerve
Medial pectoral nerve

95

What are the actions of the Pectoralis Minor?

Elevates ribs
Depresses scapula
Stabilize scapula

96

Where does the Serratus Anterior originate?

Digitations from upper 8 ribs

97

Where does the Serratus Anterior insert?

Anterior medial border of the scapula

98

Where does the Subscapularis originate?

Subscapular fossa

99

Where does the Subscapularis insert?

Lesser tubercle of humerus

100

What nerves innervate Subscapularis?

Upper subscapular nerve
Lower subscapular nerve

101

What are the actions of the Subscapularis?

Medial rotation of arm
Adduction of arm

102

Where does the Supraspinatus originate?

Supraspinous fossa

103

Where does the Supraspinatus insert?

Greater tubercle of humerus

104

What nerve innervates Supraspinatus?

Subscapular nerve

105

What is the action of the Supraspinatus?

Abduction of arm
(1st 90 degrees)

106

Where does the Infraspinatus originate?

Infraspinous fossa

107

Where does the Infraspinatus insert?

Greater tubercle of humerus

108

What nerve innervates Infraspinatus?

Suprascapular nerve

109

What is the action of the Infraspinatus?

Lateral rotation of humerus

110

What function does the Scapulohumeral divison serve?

Gives shoulder joint strength as a part of the rotator cuff

111

What is the Scapulohumeral division also referred to as?

The "intrinsic shoulder muscles"

112

What are characteristics of the "intrinsic shoulder muscles?"

They originate and insert within the confines of the shoulder

113

Where does the Trapezius insert?

Acromion process of scapula
Spine of scapula
Lateral 1/3 of clavicle

114

What nerve innervates Trapezius?

Accessory nerve (IX)

115

What are the actions of the Trapezius?

Adduction of scapula
Upward rotation of glenoid fossa
Upper elevates scapula
Lower depresses scapula

116

Where does the Levator Scapula originate?

T.P. of C1-C4

117

Where does the Levator Scapula insert?

Superior medial border of scapula

118

What nerve innervates Levator Scapula?

Dorsal scapular nerve

119

What are the actions of the Levator Scapula?

Elevates scapula
Tilts glenoid fossa down

120

Where do the Rhomboids originate?

S.P. of C7-T5

121

Where do the Rhomboids insert?

Medial border of scapula
(below and above spine)

122

What nerve innervates the Rhomboids?

Dorsal scapular nerve

123

What are the actions of the Rhomboids?

Adduction of scapula
Rotates glenoid fossa down

124

Where does the Pectoralis Minor originate?

3rd, 4th and 5th ribs

125

Where does the Pectoralis Minor insert?

Corocoid process of scapula

126

What nerves innervate Pectoralis Minor?

Lateral pectoral nerve
Medial pectoral nerve

127

What are the actions of the Pectoralis Minor?

Elevates ribs
Depresses scapula
Stabilize scapula

128

Where does the Serratus Anterior originate?

Digitations from upper 8 ribs

129

Where does the Serratus Anterior insert?

Anterior medial border of the scapula

130

What nerve innervates Serratus Anterior?

Long thoracic nerve

131

What are the actions of the Serratus Anterior?

Holds scapula to chest
Protracts scapula
Rotate glenoid fossa up
(Makes abduction greater than 90 degrees possible)