B3 - Infection And Response Flashcards Preview

GCSE Biology - Final > B3 - Infection And Response > Flashcards

Flashcards in B3 - Infection And Response Deck (27):
1

What are pathogens?

Microorganisms that can enter the body and cause disease that spreads.

2

What is bacteria?

Small cells that reproduce rapidly and produce toxins to make you feel ill

3

What are viruses?

Very small, reproduce rapidly and replicate causing cell damage

4

What are protists/fungi?

Protists: eukaryotes that can live on/inside organisms
Fungi: single called: can grow and penetrate human skin/plants

5

How can pathogens be spread?

-Through contaminates or dirty water
-Through droplets in the air
-Through contaminated surfaces

6

What are 3 examples of viral diseases?

Measles
HIV
TMV

7

Describe measles:

Spread by droplets from sneezes/coughs
Can cause red skin rash/fever
Vaccinated against

8

Describe HIV:

Spread by sexual contact or exchanging bodily fluids
Flu like symptoms, attacks immune cells making it harder to cope with other infections

9

Describe TMV:

Affects plants
Causes a mosaic pattern on leaves and become discoloured
Prevents photosynthesis

10

What is a fungal disease?

Rose black spot:
Can cause purple/black spots on leaves causing them to fall off
Treated with fungicides

11

What is a protist disease?

Malaria:
Mosquitoes are vectors and pick up the disease from infected animals
They inject the disease into the people they bite
Can be fatal

12

What are two types of bacterial disease?

Salmonella
Gonorrhoea

13

Describe salmonella:

Causes food poisoning
Suffer from cramps, vomiting and food poisoning
Caused by eating contaminated food

14

Describe gonorrhoea:

STD - passed by sexual contact
Causes pain when urinating and thick/yellow discharge

15

How can you prevent disease?

-Be hygienic
-Destroy the vector
-Isolate infected individual
-Vaccinations

16

What ways to our body fight disease?

-Skin acts as a barrier to pathogens
-Hair/mucus in the nose trap pathogen
-Trachea/bronchi secrete mucus and cilia wafts it
-Hydrochloric acid is produced in the stomach

17

What is phagocytosis?

The process where WBC can engulf foreign cells and digest them.

18

How do WBC fight disease?

They produce antibodies:
-Invading pathogens have a unique antigen
-WBC comes across one and produce an antibody to lock onto the antigen
-Allows WBC to find and destroy bacteria
-WBC remembers these antibodies and can produce them again

19

What can antitoxins do?

Can be produced to fight bacteria.

20

What is vaccination?

When small amounts of dead or inactive pathogens are injected into the body so it’s white blood cells can produce antibodies to fight it.
This means if the person ever gets the active pathogen the wbc can fight it off quickly.

21

What are the pros and cons of vaccination?

+Can control communicable diseases or epidemics
-They don’t always work

22

What drug can relieve symptoms?

Painkillers

23

What do antibiotics do?

They kill off bacteria but not viruses.

24

How can bacteria become resistant to antibiotics?

When treating the infection there is some more resistant bacteria.
The non-resistant strains are killed off first leaving the most resistant to duplicate and increase.

25

What is aspirin made from?

Found in willow

26

Where was penicillin found?

In mould - it can kill off bacteria

27

Describe the 3 stages of a drugs trial?

1) In preclinical testing the drug is first tested in human cells/tissue
2) If this goes well next is on live animals to test dosage, toxicity and if it works
3) Finally it moves to healthy humans and the placebo effect and then onto the ill.