Flashcards in B4 Deck (26):
Why is an increase of surface area make gas exchange more efficient plus easier and what does this?
Alveoli and makes diffusion easier
Why do the capillaries in the capillary network having a one cell thick wall help gas exchange?
Less diffusion distance
How does an increase of blood supply help gas exchange?
Makes the concentration gradient steeper making diffusion faster
How does the gas exchange system being moist help gas exchange?
Gases dissolve easier
What do the guard cells do in the leaf structure?
Control the opening and closing of the stomata
What do the stomata's do in the leaf structure?
Allows gases to move in and out of the leaf
What is in the palisade mesophyll that helps with photosynthesis?
How does the spongy mesophyll help gas exchange in the leaf structure?
Increases the surface area
What does the xylem transport in the leaf structure?
Minerals and water
What does the phloem carry in the leaf structure?
Dissolved food like sugars from photosynthesis and is important for respiration round the plant
3 steps of inhalation
The diaphragm contracts also flattens and moves down
The external intercostal muscles contract which lifts the ribs upwards and outwards
The resulting increase in the volume of the thorax causes a decrease in air pressure and fresh air is drawn into lungs
3 steps of exhalation
Diaphragm relaxes and moves upwards
The intercostal muscles relax and the ribcage drops downwards and inwards
This results in a decrease in the volume of the thorax and the air in the lungs is pushed out
Why would mechanical valves be needed?
For leaky valves, if they become leaky or atiff it means it doesn't work properly possibly leading to death
Why would artificial pacemakers be needed?
If the rhythm in your heart isn't right due to a problem in the right atrium where cells act as a pacemaker
What is a stent?
A balloon used to open up artery and then leaves mesh to keep artery open
What does statins reduce the risk of?
Reduces risk of cardiovascular disease
What are the 4 chambers of the heart?
Label a heart
What does the bronchi do?
Extensions of the windpipe that shuttle air to and from the lungs. Oxygen going to lungs
What does the trachea do?
What do veins do and what's there structure?
Large lumen, carry blood away from organs towards the heart
What do Capillaries do and what's there structure?
Have one cell thick wall, links arteries and veins
What do arteries do and what's there structure?
Have a very thick wall have to withstand high pressure, carry blood away from heart
What factors could affect transpiration rate and how?
Humidity(the lower the humidity the higher the rate)
Temperature(the higher the temp the higher the rate)
Air flow(the more wind the higher the rate)
Light intensity(the more intense the higher the rate)
How do plants lose water?
Through the leaves the guard cells open the stomata and water leaves through the stomata, factors can affect this as they can change how open the stomata is.