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Flashcards in B4 Deck (26):
1

Why is an increase of surface area make gas exchange more efficient plus easier and what does this?

Alveoli and makes diffusion easier

2

Why do the capillaries in the capillary network having a one cell thick wall help gas exchange?

Less diffusion distance

3

How does an increase of blood supply help gas exchange?

Makes the concentration gradient steeper making diffusion faster

4

How does the gas exchange system being moist help gas exchange?

Gases dissolve easier

5

What do the guard cells do in the leaf structure?

Control the opening and closing of the stomata

6

What do the stomata's do in the leaf structure?

Allows gases to move in and out of the leaf

7

What is in the palisade mesophyll that helps with photosynthesis?

Chloroplasts

8

How does the spongy mesophyll help gas exchange in the leaf structure?

Increases the surface area

9

What does the xylem transport in the leaf structure?

Minerals and water

10

What does the phloem carry in the leaf structure?

Dissolved food like sugars from photosynthesis and is important for respiration round the plant

11

3 steps of inhalation

The diaphragm contracts also flattens and moves down

The external intercostal muscles contract which lifts the ribs upwards and outwards

The resulting increase in the volume of the thorax causes a decrease in air pressure and fresh air is drawn into lungs

12

3 steps of exhalation

Diaphragm relaxes and moves upwards

The intercostal muscles relax and the ribcage drops downwards and inwards

This results in a decrease in the volume of the thorax and the air in the lungs is pushed out

13

Why would mechanical valves be needed?

For leaky valves, if they become leaky or atiff it means it doesn't work properly possibly leading to death

14

Why would artificial pacemakers be needed?

If the rhythm in your heart isn't right due to a problem in the right atrium where cells act as a pacemaker

15

What is a stent?

A balloon used to open up artery and then leaves mesh to keep artery open

16

What does statins reduce the risk of?

Reduces risk of cardiovascular disease

17

What are the 4 chambers of the heart?

Left atrium
Left ventricle
Right atrium
Right ventricle

18

Label a heart

See goodnotes

19

What does the bronchi do?

Extensions of the windpipe that shuttle air to and from the lungs. Oxygen going to lungs

20

What does the trachea do?

L

21

What do veins do and what's there structure?

Large lumen, carry blood away from organs towards the heart

22

What do Capillaries do and what's there structure?

Have one cell thick wall, links arteries and veins

23

What do arteries do and what's there structure?

Have a very thick wall have to withstand high pressure, carry blood away from heart

24

What factors could affect transpiration rate and how?

Humidity(the lower the humidity the higher the rate)
Temperature(the higher the temp the higher the rate)
Air flow(the more wind the higher the rate)
Light intensity(the more intense the higher the rate)

25

How do plants lose water?

Through the leaves the guard cells open the stomata and water leaves through the stomata, factors can affect this as they can change how open the stomata is.

26

What is in blood plasma?

Antibodies
Glucose
Amino acids
...