B6.032 Prework 1: Overview of Vertebral Column and Anatomical Causes of LBP Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in B6.032 Prework 1: Overview of Vertebral Column and Anatomical Causes of LBP Deck (40):
1

functions of vertebral column

protects spinal cord
point of attachment of ligaments, bone/muscles or upper and lower limbs
allow posture of the trunk
contribute to locomotion
transmit weight of upper body to legs
provide mobility/stability to trunk

2

lumbar spine

least mobility, most stability
site of most pain in the back

3

components of vertebral column

vertebral bodies
joints (facet and intervertebral)
ligaments
discs
muscles

4

composition of the body of the vertebrae

cortical bone- outer
trabecular bone- inner

5

function of trabecular portion of body

assist with compressive forces imparted on spine

6

risk factors for trabecular fracture

lack of activity
smoking
age
osteoporosis

7

how can you fracture your trabecular bone

trauma or sudden forces

8

how do you maintain trabecular bone

physical activity

9

what part of the neural arch is at risk of fracture

pars interarticularis

10

what is the pars interarticularis

bridges superior and inferior spinous processes
important for weight bearing
region where forces are transferred from vertebral body to neural arch

11

who is at risk of a pars fracture

young people who are very active and do a lot of rotation/extension
typically in individuals < 20

12

fracture of the pars interarticularis

spondylosis

13

fracture on both sides of the pars with slippage

spondylolisthesis

14

pain associated with pars fracture

severe pain in center of back
does not radiate unless so severe that slippage compresses nerve roots
palpation reproduces symptoms

15

diagnosis of vertebral body

plain radiograph
bony changes

16

what is the facet joint

joints of spine between superior and inferior articular processes on each side of spine

17

discuss the angles of the facet joint

cervical -45
thoracic- 90
lumbar -0
change in angle limits movements between vertebrae in different regions

18

components of facet joints

synovial lining
joint capsule
meniscoid
hyaline cartilage- allows for gliding movement

19

2 types of injury associated with facet joints

DJD due to arthritic changes
facet lock due to meniscoid displacement

20

what type of motion can cause facet lock

sudden sharp movement

21

pain associated with facet joint damage

localized pain in paravertebral region
doesn't cross sides or back or travel down to legs

22

imaging for facet joint damage

none required

23

what are intervertebral joints

pseudo joints composed of discs and vertebral bodies

24

components of discs

nucleus pulposus- deforms under pressure
annulus fibrosis - resists tensile forces

25

function of intervertebral joints

weight bearing and stability
compresses under pressure

26

what is disc herniation

annulus tear leads to nucleus migration into spinal cord
this causes a chemical reaction that results in intense back pain

27

what is DDD

part of the normal aging process
only causes pain in some people

28

pain associated with intervertebral joints

back or back and leg pain
leg symptoms due to nerve root compression

29

imaging needed for intervertebral joint damage

MRI if there is evidence of nerve tissue compression

30

major vertebral ligaments

anterior longitudinal
posterior longitudinal
ligamentum flavum (between neural arches)
interspinous (connects spinous processes)
supraspinous (lies over the tips of the spinous processes)

31

function of ligaments

support facets and IV joints
resist motion in sagittal plane (flexion)

32

what can put stress on the ligaments

slouched posture
sustained flexion

33

pain associated with ligament stress

central back pain

34

function of superior and intermediate back muscles

power
move trunk
anchored to upper and lower limbs to provide stability to trunk when moving extremities

35

result of damage to superior back muscles

hypertonic, increase in activity to prevent movement curing acute pain stage

36

function of deep back muscles

stabilize vertebral segments
prevents extensive motion at each level which could lead to degenerative changes

37

result of damage to deep back muscles

hypotonic, decrease in activity which decreases stability

38

why are rehab programs focusing on deep back muscles

activate them to improve stability for back pain

39

what is interesting about lower back muscle injury

VERY rarely isolated
everything is too connects
may transmit pain from other etiologies

40

function of transverse abdominis in spine

creates natural corset to stabilize lumbar spine
anticipate extremity movements to stabilize spine