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Flashcards in B7.3 Deck (27):
1

1. How is a constant body temperature maintained?

-heat gained (including heat released during respiration) is balanced by heat lost

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1. What processes help to balance body temperature?

-nervous system
-negative feedback

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1. How is heat gained?

-e.g. heat released from respiration

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2. What detects external temperature?

-temperature receptors in the skin

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2. What is your core body temperature?

-temperature inside the body where the organs are

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3. What detects the temperature of the blood?

-temperature receptors in the brain (hypothalamus)

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4. What does the brain (hypothalamus) act as?

-a processing centre, receiving information from the temperature receptors, and sending instructions to trigger the effectors automatically

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4. What is the hypothalamus?

-part of the brain, where temperature receptors are

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5. What are effectors in maintaining constant body temperature?

-sweat glands and muscles

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6. What happens at high body temperature to try and maintain temperature?

-more sweat is produced by sweat glands which cools the body when it evaporates
-blood vessels supplying the capillaries of the skin dilate (vasodilation) allowing more blood to flow through skin capillaries which increases heat loss

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7. What can exercise lead to?

-increased sweating= dehydration= reduced sweating=increase of core body temperature

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8. What happens at low body temperature to try and maintain temperature?

-the increased rate of respiration stimulated when muscles contract rapidly (shivering) results in some of the energy transferred in respiration warming the surrounding tissues
-blood vessels supplying the capillaries of the skin constrict (vasoconstriction) restricting blood flow through skin capillaries which reduces heat loss

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9. How do some effectors work?

-some effectors work antagonistically, which allows a more sensitive and controlled response

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10. What does high levels of sugar cause?

-high levels of (simple) sugar, common in some processed foods, are quickly absorbed into the blood stream, causing a rapid rise in the blood sugar level

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10. Why do blood sugar levels rise so rapidly if high sugar foods are eaten?

-simple sugars are digested and absorbed into blood quickly

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10. What keeps blood sugar levels constant?

-insulin

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10. How does insulin keep blood sugar levels constant?

-sugar eaten- pancreases releases insulin=sugar removed from blood= blood sugar level decreases

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11. What types of diabetes are there?

-type 1
-type 2

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11. Which type of diabetes is more likely to arise because of poor diet or obesity?

-particularly late onset diabetes (type 2)

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11. What does late onset mean?

-develops later in life

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12. When does type 1 diabetes arise?

-when the pancreas stops producing enough of the hormone, insulin
=high blood sugar level

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12. When does type 2 diabetes arise?

-when the body no longer responds to its own insulin or does not make enough insulin
=high blood sugar level

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13. How can type 1 diabetes be controlled?

-by insulin injections

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13. How are insulin injections used?

-at mealtimes
-right amount of insulin so too much sugar not taken out

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13. How can type 2 diabetes be controlled?

-by diet and exercise

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14. What type of diet can help to maintain a constant blood sugar level? Why?

-a diet high in fibre and complex carbohydrates
-food digested slower than simple sugars= absorbed into blood slower= blood sugar level rises slower/ body can remove sugar for respiration etc.

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14. What is sugar?

-a carbohydrate