Flashcards in B7.3 Deck (27):
1. How is a constant body temperature maintained?
-heat gained (including heat released during respiration) is balanced by heat lost
1. What processes help to balance body temperature?
1. How is heat gained?
-e.g. heat released from respiration
2. What detects external temperature?
-temperature receptors in the skin
2. What is your core body temperature?
-temperature inside the body where the organs are
3. What detects the temperature of the blood?
-temperature receptors in the brain (hypothalamus)
4. What does the brain (hypothalamus) act as?
-a processing centre, receiving information from the temperature receptors, and sending instructions to trigger the effectors automatically
4. What is the hypothalamus?
-part of the brain, where temperature receptors are
5. What are effectors in maintaining constant body temperature?
-sweat glands and muscles
6. What happens at high body temperature to try and maintain temperature?
-more sweat is produced by sweat glands which cools the body when it evaporates
-blood vessels supplying the capillaries of the skin dilate (vasodilation) allowing more blood to flow through skin capillaries which increases heat loss
7. What can exercise lead to?
-increased sweating= dehydration= reduced sweating=increase of core body temperature
8. What happens at low body temperature to try and maintain temperature?
-the increased rate of respiration stimulated when muscles contract rapidly (shivering) results in some of the energy transferred in respiration warming the surrounding tissues
-blood vessels supplying the capillaries of the skin constrict (vasoconstriction) restricting blood flow through skin capillaries which reduces heat loss
9. How do some effectors work?
-some effectors work antagonistically, which allows a more sensitive and controlled response
10. What does high levels of sugar cause?
-high levels of (simple) sugar, common in some processed foods, are quickly absorbed into the blood stream, causing a rapid rise in the blood sugar level
10. Why do blood sugar levels rise so rapidly if high sugar foods are eaten?
-simple sugars are digested and absorbed into blood quickly
10. What keeps blood sugar levels constant?
10. How does insulin keep blood sugar levels constant?
-sugar eaten- pancreases releases insulin=sugar removed from blood= blood sugar level decreases
11. What types of diabetes are there?
11. Which type of diabetes is more likely to arise because of poor diet or obesity?
-particularly late onset diabetes (type 2)
11. What does late onset mean?
-develops later in life
12. When does type 1 diabetes arise?
-when the pancreas stops producing enough of the hormone, insulin
=high blood sugar level
12. When does type 2 diabetes arise?
-when the body no longer responds to its own insulin or does not make enough insulin
=high blood sugar level
13. How can type 1 diabetes be controlled?
-by insulin injections
13. How are insulin injections used?
-right amount of insulin so too much sugar not taken out
13. How can type 2 diabetes be controlled?
-by diet and exercise
14. What type of diet can help to maintain a constant blood sugar level? Why?
-a diet high in fibre and complex carbohydrates
-food digested slower than simple sugars= absorbed into blood slower= blood sugar level rises slower/ body can remove sugar for respiration etc.