Flashcards in B9 - Section 3 - Emergency Procedures Deck (14):
· True or false: In relation to the safety of aircraft operations, the captain has the emergency
authority to take action, independent of any orders, instructions or standard procedure, to
ensure the safety of the aircraft and its occupants.
· What is the cabin altitude normally pressurised to?
· A fault in the pressurisation system results in what type of depressurisation?
· What are some general effects inside the aircraft during a depressurisation?
· True or false: Smoke detector(s) in lavatories may activate in the event of a depressurisation?
· What are some of the physiological effects on aircraft occupants?
· If crew notice aching/painful joints and a rash, what are these symptoms of?
· Will individuals suffering from hypoxia think they are acting more efficiently and competently than they actually are?
· What is hypoxia and its treatment?
· What is the Oxygen paradox?
· At 40 000 ft what is the time of useful consciousness (TUC)?
· What are the cabin crew immediate actions in a depressurisation (B737/E190/A330/B777 OR
· What is the first cabin crew follow-up action once the aircraft is at or below 10 000ft?
- approx. 6000-8000 ft
GRADUAL - fault in pressurisation system, small cracks in fuselage or windows or faulty door seals - results in gradual loss of cab in pressure over longer time. Fuselage remains in tact but AIR ESCAPES SLOWLY.
RAPID - hole in fuselage structure (normally door, window or cargo hatch) causing cabin atmosphere to become same as air outside WITHIN SECONDS.
EXPLOSIVE - gross structural failure of fuselage causing cabin atmosphere to become same as outside in LESS THAN HALF A SECOND)
- a fault in the pressurisation system results in GRADUAL depressurisation
- GENERAL EFFECTS inside aircraft:
- sudden boiling of liquids
- loud noise as air escapes
- thin, cold, dry air
- fog in cabin (not to be confused with smoke)
- dust and objects blown about
- smoke detectors in lava may activate
- altitude warning siren sounds in the flight deck if cabin altitude rises to 10,000 ft, altering the flight crew to fit their oxygen masks
- PHYSIOLOGICAL EFFECTS on aircraft occupants:
- CHILLING of body
- PAIN in middle ear and sinuses
- discomfort/pain due to pressure of gasses trapped in body
- DECOMPRESSION sickness (formation and buildup of nitrogen bubbles in the blood - symptoms: aching/painful joints, RASH, constriction in chest and throat causing breathing difficulty, visual impairment, mental impairment, collapse)
- HYPOXIA (reduction of oxygen to body cells. Continued oxygen deficiency can result in unconsciousness and death. Person capabilities will be adversely affected without being aware of symptoms. Individuals suffering from hypoxia will think they are acting more efficiently and competently than they actually are. This euphoric condition is dangerous and must be guarded against. (Symptoms include fatigue, lack of concentration, headache or nausea, blurred/tunnel vision, lack of self-criticism/state of euphoria, mood change and confusion, breathlessness, light headedness/dizziness, blue tinge to lips and fingers, loss of consciousness, death).
- Aching/painful joints and a rash are symptoms of DECOMPRESSION sickness
- Hypoxia (listed above) - treatment is IMMEDIATE OXYGEN
- Oxygen paradox is when oxygen is administered to a person suffering severe hypoxia and there may be a temporary increase in the severity of symptoms for approximately 15-60 seconds.
- 40,000 ft TUC = 15-20 seconds ****
- 35,000 ft = 30 secs - 1 min
- 30,000 ft = 1-2 min
- 28,000 ft = 2-3 min
- 25,000 ft = 3-5 min
- 22,000 ft - 5-10 min
- CC IMMEDIATE ACTIONS:
- OXYGEN mask - don nearest available oxygen mask
- SECURE CARTS - if in cabin activate brakes, wedge cart across aisle. Do not move cart to galley.
- SECURE SELF - in harness or seatbelt. If in cabin, sit in nearest seat or wedge between pax.
- INSTRUCT PAX - if automatic depressurisation announcement is not forthcoming. Make Depressurisation PA or use hand signals. (NB: CC must not remove oxygen masks or move about cabin to carry this out).
- REMAIN SECURED - until captain advises safe level reached
- CC FOLLOW UP ACTIONS once at or below 10000 ft:
- transfer to portable oxygen bottle if not already using one. (If CC feel unwell they shall remain secured with PSU oxygen on)
- turn cabin lights to brightest setting (if not previously activated automatically)
- check on crew then pax
- check lavs vacant
- check seat belts fastened and no smoking
- communicate to OBL state of cabin and occupants
- OBL report to captain
- administer first aid
· Fire is a chemical reaction involving which three elements?
· TRUE or False: Crew must take immediate and aggressive action to gain access to the source of the fire or smoke.
· What are some obvious sources of fire, smoke and fumes in the cabin?
· What are the three important principles of fire fighting?
· When feeling for heat behind doors or panels, what part of your hand should you use?
· Where would you start fighting a fire on a vertical surface (e.g. galley curtain)?
· What three roles make up the Fire fighting team?
· B737/E190/A330/B777: When would the Communicator make the PA "Would the (CS/FM/Senior) report to [affected area]."
· Who times when the PBE is donned?
· Who makes Notification to Passengers of Non-Normal Event PA in order to maintain aisle access to the fire?
· If you have additional crew members, what actions could they take?
- oxygen, heat and fuel
- Obvious sources:
- galley ovens and brewers
- lavatory and galley waste bins
- 3 IMPORTANT PRINCIPLES OF FIRE FIGHTING:
1) IMMEDIATELY locate the source of fire, smoke or fumes
2) AGGRESSIVELY attack and extinguish the fire using all available resources
- Feel for heat using back of your hand
- From the floor work upwards
- FIRE FIGHTING TEAM:
- Communicator would make the PA "Would the (CS/FM/Senior) report to [affected area]" after first informing flight crew then noting time the PBE was donned.
- The Communicator times the PBE
- The Communicator would make the Notification to Pax of Non-Normal Event PA
- Additional crew members can action:
- move pax away from area
- hand out wet cloths or paper towels
- instruct pax to get down low
- move oxygen bottles and other combustible aerials away from area - especially consider lithium batteries in pax possession near the fire
- stow/secure carts in non-affected galleys
- gather additional firefighting equipment if required
General Fire fighting and Smoke Drill
· What are the 7 steps that make up the general fire fighting and smoke drill?
· B737 BSI/B777: If the flight crew decide to turn off CABIN/UTILITY power, what are cabin crew immediate actions?
GENERAL FIREFIGHTING & SMOKE DRILL - 7 STEPS:
1) ALERT other crew and flight crew
2) REMOVE POWER switch off/remove electrical power. Pull all circuit breakers on affected equipment if safe to do so.
3) SHIELD use doors/hatches as protective shield if required
4) FIGHT FIRE/SMOKE aggressively attack and extinguish the fire. If only smoke visible - locate the source and extinguish with non-flammable liquids. DO NOT use halon on smouldering material, it will not be effective. DO not use liquids on electrical components like circuit breakers, electric outlets or hot oils and fats.
5) COOL immediately after the fire is extinguished, cool the source with non-flammable liquid
6) MONITOR for re-ignition. Check surrounding areas for evidence of hidden fire behind panels every 15-20 mins for the remainder of flight.
7) REPORT OBL report to captain complete Safety Report
- CC immediate actions if CABIN/UTILITY power turned off:
- instruct pax to turn on PSU lights
- continue with firefighting procedures
· TRUE or FALSE: Crew should attempt to remove the battery from the device if it is overheating.
· If a passenger has the device in their possession and flames are visible, what are crew immediate actions?
· If the device is in the overhead locker how could crew identify the item?
· When a lithium battery is overheating (no visible fire or smoke) what would crew immediate actions be?
What actions would you take if the device continues to overheat?
- FALSE - do not attempt to reeve the battery from the device
- Battery PED Fire or smoke in Pax possession - CC immediate actions:
- Alert other crew if required and flight crew
- identify the item
- apply general firefighting and smoke drills
- when fire extinguished or no flames visible:
- douse device continuously with water or non-flammable liquid until cooled and no longer overheating (up to 10-15 mins)
- for monitoring - bring a suitable empty metal container to the device and place the device in it using fire gloves iff fitted. Move container to the designated area - submerge device as much as possible with non-flammable liquid. If the divide cannot be completely submerged ensure it is positioned so that the battery is fully submerged in the liquid.
OVERHEAD LOCKER - CC IDENTIFY ITEM:
- if smoke is coming from the overhead bin but the device s to visible or accessible, remove other baggage from the overhead bin to access the affected baggage/item.
- if necessary ask pax to identify contents of their baggage. CAUTION in order to avoid injury from a flash fire it is not recommended to open the affected baggage.
- LITHIUM BATTERY OVERHEATING - CC IMMEDIATE ACTIONS:
- alert crew and flight crew
- identify the item
- instruct pax to turn off device immediately and remove power CAUTION do not attempt to remove the battery from the device
- if overheating persists - douse device continuously with water or non-flammable liquid until cooled and no longer overheating, preferably before the device catches fire (up to 10-15 mins)
· Should the flight deck door be opened if cabin fumes are present?
· How should cabin crew communicate with the flight crew?
· What drill positions should cabin crew adopt?
· What sort of information can the Communicator use to describe fumes when speaking to flight crew?
· What safety equipment can be donned, if required?
· What duties can additional crew (if available) carry out?
· What procedure should you follow if fumes are present at your jumpseat for landing?
- via interphone
- firefighting drill positions; primary, communicator, assist
- smells like... tastes like... are the fumes visible?... are the fumes causing any irritation
- PBE and portable oxygen if required
- move pax away from area
- hand out wet towels if required
- 1) communicate with flight crew immediately
2) pass on any relevant information regarding the fumes
3) flight few will advise crew member on actions to take
4) if risk of crew incapacitation du to fumes and it is necessary to occupy a pax seat for landing - rear to procedures for unserviceable jump seat
Unlawful Interference (Hijack)
· True or false: A hijack has not taken place until such time as an unauthorised person seizes or exercises control of the aircraft. In flight the seizing of control of the aircraft may be established by entry into and taking control of the flight deck or, by means of coercion from the cabin, causing the pilot in command to submit to the demands of a hijacker?
· What is an attempted hijack?
· What are the first three cabin crew actions in an unlawful interference (hijack) situation?
· If cabin crew are unable to speak freely due to the threatening influence of a hijacker, what covert phrase will you use with flight crew?
· If you are able to speak freely, should you use covert language such as the covert phrase?
· Will an ASO ask for the flight deck door to be opened?
· What are some symptoms of Stockholm syndrome?
- any attempt by a person to unlawfully seize control of an aircraft by their own physical actions or by coercion of a cabin crew member by threatening the safety of the aircraft or any person on board. In this case, full authority for the flight deck still remains with the PIC.
CC ACTIONS in unlawful interference/hijack:
1) attempt to keep hijacker out of the flight deck
2) contact the flight deck via inter phone using appropriate non-normal signal. (If unable to speak freely then use covert phrasse. If able to speak freely tie as much information as possible - weapons seen, description of hijackers, seat number where they were seated, name of hijackers on pax list, any demands made by the hijackers).
3) comply with hijackers demands except that entry to the flight deck shall be prevented at all costs.
- NO - give as much info as possible (above)
- NO - NEVER
- Stockholm Syndrome symptoms:
- positive feelings by the hostage toward captor
- negative feelings by the hostage toward family and authorities trying to rescue them
- support for the captor's reasons and behaviours
- supportive behaviour by the homage at times helping the captor
· Who will assess any bomb threat made against a company aircraft or facility?
· What is the LRBL on the aircraft type/s you are endorsed on?
· B737 BSI: What cabin crew actions are required once the flight crew turn the CAB/UTIL switch off?
· Should the entire Dangerous Object (Bomb) Search checklist be completed if a suspect item is found before the end of the checklist?
· How far should passengers be moved from the suspect item (if found)?
· Who will advise whether or not to move a suspect item (if found)?
· Where should crew sit for landing?
- Virgin Australia Bomb Threat Assessment Team
- B737: 2R door
- A330: 4R door
- ***CHECK*** - ask pax to turn on PSU lights
- follow flight crew instructions
- obtain applicable Dangerous Object (Bomb) Search Checklist
- Complete actions as per checklist
- YES - the entire checklist must be completed - you may find a decoy item - there may be more than one item.
- pax should be move dat least 4 rows away and advised to keep heads low, behind top of seat back.
- Captain will advise if item should be moved or not
- Rearmost CC should sit behind last row of pax for landing
Bomb Threat - On the Ground (Prior to Take-Off or After Landing)
· What information should the flight crew communicate to the CS/Senior?
· If there is an imminent risk or danger of explosion, what will the captain do?
- Capt will call OBL to the flight deck and will advise:
- whether aircraft is to be taxied to a different location
- if a search is to be carried out by CC or the appropriate authorities
- whether it will be necessary to disembark the pax
- Captain will initiate an EVACUATION if imminent risk of danger of explosion
Captain’s Emergency PAs and Commands
· What is the Ditching PA and when will this be made? What PA will follow it?
· What is the Brace PA and associated commands?
· Which three PAs can terminate the brace procedure?
· After the aircraft has stopped on land (following a normal or emergency landing), you hear “This is the captain, cabin crew to your stations”. What is this PA called? Should you leave your exit to reassure and calm passengers following this PA?
· If the captain is certain an evacuation is unnecessary (such as following a rejected take-off),
what PA will you hear?
- DITCHING PA: "Attention, attention, this is a ditching" - followed by the brace PA "This is the captain, brace - brace"
- BRACE PA: "This is the captain, brace - brace"
- BRACE COMMANDS: "heads down, stay down"
3 PA's that can terminate the brace procedure are:
- ALERT PA
- EVACUATION PA
- EVACUATION UNLIKELY PA
- ALERT PA - land only - "This is the captain, cabin crew to your stations" NO do to leave your exit to reassure and calm pax (if possible you should try to do this without leaving your exit to do this)
- ALERT CANCEL PA "Cabin crew stand down, cabin crew stand down"
· If you are seated rearward facing or forward facing how should your hands be positioned?
· In a forward facing cabin or flight crew jump seat, how will you position your chin?
· When should a passenger adopt the alternate brace position?
- Sit on hands - one hand under each thigh, palms upwards (if this is not possible, place palms together and secure between inner thighs)
- lower chin towards sternum as far as possible
- pax should adopt alternate brace position if cannot reach seat in front, if seated in first row at bulkhead or unable to assume primary brace position
· What are the three categories of emergency landings?
· What is an uneventful landing?
1) Forced landings
3) Non-normal landings
- An uneventful landing refers to a prepared or unprepared emergency landing where no actual danger or threat to the safety of pax or crew exists after the aircraft lands
· If the aircraft breaks up or ditches, will cabin crew be required to initiate the evacuation?
· What must primary crew grasp onto in their evacuation space?
· True or false: Be aggressive if necessary to get people moving?
· When monitoring the evacuation flow, should cabin crew use positive commands (eg. “move faster”) or negative commands (eg. “don’t wait”)?
· When checking assigned areas prior to evacuating the aircraft, is it a requirement to open all overhead lockers?
· What should assist crew do during an evacuation?
· Where should your hands be positioned when evacuating down a slide?
· What are the initial commands for a land evacuation?
· Once you have determined that an exit is usable what will your evacuation commands be on land? Do these change if you are evacuating at the overwing/window exit?
· What additional instruction will be given to PAX during a ditching when shouting initial commands?
- evacuation handle
- positive commands
- assist crew should assume role of incapacitated primary crew member if necessary
- block pax while primary crew prepares exit for evacuation
- establish even flow of pax to doors
- when all assistance rendered, evacuate
- assist outside the aircraft
- position hands on knees or grip clothing at knees
- "EVACUATE EVACUATE" "High heels off" "Leave everything behind"
- "Come this way, get out" (repeat) - no they do not change if you are evacuating at the overawing exit
- Additional information during a ditching "fit life jacket"