Flashcards in Back Deck (20):
What connects the upper limb to the skeleton?
What groups are the muscles in the back separated into and why?
Superficial + intermediate - extrinsic muscles bc they originate from locations other than the back
Deep - intrinsic muscles bc they develop in the back
Which muscles make up the extrinsic superficial back muscles?
Rotator cuff muscles
What movements do the trapezius muscles do and what nerve innervates them?
Superior part elevates the scapula
Middle part retracts the scapula
Inferior part depresses the scapula
Supplied by the accessory nerve
Which intermediate muscles of the back assist in respiratory movements?
Serratus posterior superior
Serratus posterior inferior
What role do the deep muscles of the back play?
Produce movements of the vertebral column
Which muscles aid in rotation of the scapula?
What are the functions of the vertebral column?
Project the weight of the body to the pelvis
Attachment for bones and muscles
Protection of spinal cord
Segmental innervation of the body
What are the 5 sections of the vertebral column and how long is each section?
Cervical - 7 vertebrae
Thoracic - 12 vertebrae
Lumbar - 5 vertebrae
Sacral - 5 fused vertebrae
Coccyx - 3-4 fused vertebrae
Why is the sacral vertebrae fused and widened?
To transmit the weight of the body through the pelvis to the legs
What movements can the vertebral column do?
Label a diagram of a typical vertebrae
2 transverse processes
2 superior articular processes
2 inferior articular processes
Which 2 regions make up an intervertebral disc?
What is a slipped disc, where does it commonly occur and what are the 4 stages of a disc herniation?
When the nucleus pulposus seeps through the the annulus fibrosus
Commonly occurs at L4/5 or L5/S1
Stages are - degeneration, prolapse, extrusion and sequestration
What is cervical spondylosis?
Degenerative osteoarthritis of the intervertebral joints in the cervical spine resulting in pain and pressure on the nerve roots and spinal cord
Why is the cervical region prone to whiplash?
What are the primary and secondary curvatures of the spine?
Primary - curves formed from foetal development aka kyphosis
Secondary - curves that are developed postnatally aka lordosis
What is scoliosis?
Abnormal lateral curvature of the spine
What are the ligaments of the spinal cord and where are they located?
Anterior longitudinal ligament
Posterior longitudinal ligament