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Flashcards in Back Deck (20):
1

What connects the upper limb to the skeleton?

Sternoclavicular joint

2

What groups are the muscles in the back separated into and why?

Superficial + intermediate - extrinsic muscles bc they originate from locations other than the back

Deep - intrinsic muscles bc they develop in the back

3

Which muscles make up the extrinsic superficial back muscles?

Trapezius
Latissimus dorsi
Levator scapulae
Rhomboids
Deltoid
Teres Major
Rotator cuff muscles

4

What movements do the trapezius muscles do and what nerve innervates them?

Superior part elevates the scapula
Middle part retracts the scapula
Inferior part depresses the scapula

Supplied by the accessory nerve

5

Which intermediate muscles of the back assist in respiratory movements?

Serratus posterior superior

Serratus posterior inferior

6

What role do the deep muscles of the back play?

Produce movements of the vertebral column

Maintain posture

7

Which muscles aid in rotation of the scapula?

Supraspinatous
Deltoid
Serratus anterior
Trapezius
Levator scapulae

8

What are the functions of the vertebral column?

Project the weight of the body to the pelvis
Attachment for bones and muscles
Protection of spinal cord
Shock absorption
Segmental innervation of the body

9

What are the 5 sections of the vertebral column and how long is each section?

Cervical - 7 vertebrae
Thoracic - 12 vertebrae
Lumbar - 5 vertebrae
Sacral - 5 fused vertebrae
Coccyx - 3-4 fused vertebrae

10

Why is the sacral vertebrae fused and widened?

To transmit the weight of the body through the pelvis to the legs

11

What movements can the vertebral column do?

Flexion
Extension
Rotation
Lateral flexion

12

Label a diagram of a typical vertebrae

Body
Spinous process
2 transverse processes
Vertebral foramen
2 superior articular processes
2 inferior articular processes
Lamina

13

Which 2 regions make up an intervertebral disc?

Nucleus pulposus

Annulus fibrosus

14

What is a slipped disc, where does it commonly occur and what are the 4 stages of a disc herniation?

When the nucleus pulposus seeps through the the annulus fibrosus

Commonly occurs at L4/5 or L5/S1

Stages are - degeneration, prolapse, extrusion and sequestration

15

What is cervical spondylosis?

Degenerative osteoarthritis of the intervertebral joints in the cervical spine resulting in pain and pressure on the nerve roots and spinal cord

16

Why is the cervical region prone to whiplash?

High mobility
Low stability
Hyperextension
Hyperflexion

17

What are the primary and secondary curvatures of the spine?

Primary - curves formed from foetal development aka kyphosis

Secondary - curves that are developed postnatally aka lordosis

18

What is scoliosis?

Abnormal lateral curvature of the spine

19

What are the ligaments of the spinal cord and where are they located?

Anterior longitudinal ligament
Posterior longitudinal ligament
Ligament flavum
Interspinous ligaments
Supraspinous ligaments
Ligamentum nuchae

20

What layers does the lumbar puncture needle has to go through?

Skin - subcutaneous tissue - supraspinous ligament - interspinous ligament - ligament flavum - epidural fat/veins - dura matter - arachnoid matter - subarachnoid space - L3/4 or L4/5