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Flashcards in Back Deck (57):
1

The back is defined as the ______ part of the trunk, that os inferior to the ____and superior to the ____ ___.

The back forms the ___ of the human body; it consists of the ____ ____, _____ ____, ____ ____ and  _____ ____ (skin, connective tissue, vessels and nerves). 

posterior part

neck

gluteal region

axis

vertebral column

supporting muscles

spinal cord

associated tissue

2

The _____ formed the longitudinal axis of the body during development, but only remnants of it are left in the form of the ____ ____.

notocord

intervetebral disks

3

1-6?

Q image thumb

  1. transverse process
  2. spinal process
  3. lamina
  4. Pedicle
  5. Vetebral Body
  6. Vetebral Canal

A image thumb
4

The Vetebral column has two different types of ____. What are they? Describe each.

Joints

Synovial(diarthroidal)- a moveable joint

Cartilaginous- cartlidge is between bones so that the bones don' t damage each other. 

 

5

Synovial Joints in the back are located between ____ of ___ ___ and specifically where a _____ ____ ____ meets an ___ ____ ___. This joint is called a ____ joint or a _____ joint

processes of adjacent vertebrae

superior articulating process 

inferior articulating process

Zygapophysial

facet joint

6

What are the processies in red and what forms between them?

Q image thumb

  • The top is the superior articulating process
  • The bottom is inferior articulating process 
  • The joint between them is a zygopophysial synovial joint

7

How are joints innervated?

Any nerve that crosses a joint sends off tiny sensory branches to the joint and innervate it 

 

(this is Hiltons law but dont worry about the name)

8

Intervetebral discs are ___ ___ and aren't very moveable. They are meant to ____ the adjacent vetebrae.

Cartilaginous joints

cushion

 

9

The intervetebral discs consist of the __ __ and the __ __. 

Nucleus pulposus

annulus fibrosus

10

The nuclues pulposus is __% water and is the remnant of the ____. 

90

notocord

 

11

The outer lamellar part of the intervetebral disc is called the ___ ___. 

Annulus fibrosus

 

12

When a ____ ____ or (prolapsed disc) occurs due to trauma or hyperextenstion, the _____ ____ could come out. The nuclues pulposus almost always come out _____ or ___  and this is because there is a very strong ____ (called the ___ __ ___) that runs along the front of the vetebral bodies that prevents them from herniating forward. However, since it herniates backwards, it can push back on the ____ ___ ____ and cause ____.

herniated disc

nucleus pulposus

posteriorly

laterally

ligament

 Anterior Longitudinal Ligament

true spinal nerve (clinical nerve root)

radiculopathy

13

You can herniate discs in the ____ region and the radiculopathy pain takes the form of ____. The ____ nerve is the largest nerve in the body, so when you press on nerves in the lower back it affects it and the_____ will have pain. The pain radiates down the lower ___to the ____ and  down the back of the ____ to the ___. 

lumbar 

sciatica

sciatic

dermatome

back 

hip

thigh

leg

14

More caudal spinal nerve roots descend as cauda equina to the ____ ____ where they join as a _____ ____ ___ and exit the vertebral column; a spinal nerve exits through the ____ half of the intervertebral foramen. Because of this, the spinal nerve lies above the intervertebral disc at that level, so it won’t be affected by a herniated disc at that level. Instead, the spinal nerve ____ the herniated would be affected. 

SO usually if the L4/L5 disc herniated, the ___ spinal nerve would most likely be compressed. 

intervertebral foramen

true spinal nerve

superior

below

L5

 

15

L5 radiculopathy causes weak _____ of  ___ and ___

 

dorsiflexion

foot and toes

16

S1 radiculopathy causes depressed ___ ___ and weakness of ____ ____ in the ___

depressed ankle reflex

plantar flexion in the foot

17

The ___-___ joints allow you to nod and shake your head. The two we need to know are the _____ joint and the ____ joint.

Atlas is the ___ ___; Axis is the ____ ___; Occipital is a part of the ___.

Cranio-veterbral joints 

atlanto-occipital joint

atlanto-axial joint

Atlas- C1 vertebrae

Axis- C2 vertebrae

Occipital- part of skull

18

Atlanto-occipital joints are _____ ____ that lie between the ____ ____ ____ of the C1 vertebrae (atlas) and the _____ ____of the skull. What do these joints allow?

synovial joints

superior articulating processes

occipital condyles

“Nodding” of the head to indicate “yes” occurs at this joint.  

19

_____ loints are ____ joints that lie between C1 (atlas) and C2 (axis). What do these allow?

Atlanto-axial

synovial

“Shaking the head to indicate no” occurs here

20

Anterior Longitudinal Ligament checks the ____ of the _____ ____. It continues superiorly as the (aka renamed superiorly) ____ _____ ____ and then the ___ ______ ____ as you continue more. 

 

Checks extension

vertebral column

anterior atlanto-axial ligament

•anterior atlanto-occipital ligament

21

The ____ ____Ligament is found on the back of the vetebral bodies. This is going to check the ____ of the _____ _____. It will continue superiorly as the___ ___ at the level of vertebra __.

Posterior Longitudinal

flexion of the vertebral column

tectorial ligament

C2

22

What is the red?

Q image thumb

Posterior longitudinal ligament

 

23

What is in the yellow?

What is #1 representing?

Q image thumb

yellow -Ligamentum Flavum

anterior long. lig.

24

_____ ____ connects adjacent laminae and checks _____ of the ____ ___. It will be renamed as it moves superiorly and called the ____ ___ ____ and then the

____ ___ ____

 

Ligamentum Flavum

flexion of vertebral column

posterior atlanto-occipital ligament

posterior atlanto-axial ligament (C1 & C2)

25

Interspinous Ligaments check ____ of the _____ ____ and are directionally _____

 

 

flexion of vertebral column

 

posterior

26

What is in purple and what is in yellow?

Q image thumb

Purple- interspinous ligaments

Yellow supraspinous ligaments

 

27

_____ _____ connects tips of adjacent spinous processes (This area thickens at cervial levels and called the ___ ____ ). These are usde to check _____ of the ____ ____.

 Supraspinous Ligaments

(ligamentum nuchae

flexion of vertebral column

28

Q image thumb

  1. Dura mater
  2. spinous process
  3. subcutaneous tissue
  4. skin
  5. interspinous ligament
  6. supraspinous ligament
  7. ligamentum flavum
  8. vetebral body
  9. intervetebral disc (it is the skinny one if you switched it with 9 while you were making it )

29

Superficial extrinsic back muscles are  associated with the ___ ____

is associated with the upper extremity

30

What are the superficial back muscles? (4)

-Trapezius

-Latissimus Dorsi

-Levator scapulae

-Rhomboid major and minor

31

____ ____ muscles assists in holding the ____ back muscles in place and are accessory muscles of ____. What are they? (2)

Intermediate group

deep

respiration

Serratus posterior superior 

Serratus posterior inferior

32

What are the proximal attachments of the trapezius? (4)

What are the sistal attachments(3)?

Superior nuchal line, external occipital protruberance, nuchal ligament, spinous processes C7-T12

 

Clavicle, acromion, scapular spine

33

USUALLY, Proximal attachments of muscles are also called the ____ while distal attachments are also called the ____.

origin

insertion

34

What muscle is in blue? What mactions is it responsible for?

Q image thumb

Trapezius

 

Actions: Elevation, retraction, depression of scapula; rotation of glenoid fossa superiorly

35

What innverates the trapzius?

what kind of fiber does this nerve serve?

what is the arterial supply?

 

Cranial nerve XI (spinal accessory nerve)

Somatic Motor

Transverse cervical artery

36

What is being pointed to in the yellow?

In the white?

Q image thumb

Latissimus Dorsi

thoracolumbar fascia

37

Latissimus dorsi Proximal attachments?

Distal attachment?

PROX:

Spinous processes T7-12,

thoracolumbar fascia

iliac crest

DISTAL

Floor of intertubercular sulcus of humerus

 

38

What are the actions of Latissimus Dorsi?

Actions:

Extension, adduction, medial/internal rotation of humerus;

lifts body toward arm in climbing

39

Purple?

Black?

Green?

Q image thumb

Purp Rhomboid major

Black rhomboid minor

Green Levator Scapulae

40

For Levator scapulae, what are the following:

Proximal attachments: 

Distal attachment: 

Innervation:  

Blood supply:  

 

Proximal attachments: Transverse processes, C1-4

Distal attachment: Superior angle of scapula

Innervation:  Dorsal scapular nerve (C5)

Blood supply:  Dorsal scapular artery

41

For Rhomboid major and minor, what are the following for each:

Proximal attachments:

 

Distal attachment:

 

Proximal attachments:

•Minor: nuchal ligament, spinous processes of C7, T1

•Major: spinous processes of T2-T5

Distal attachment:

  Medial border of scapula   (minor superior to scapular   spine, major below scapular   spine)

42

What are the Intermediate extrinsic back muscles and name the action of each.

 

 

Serratus posterior superior

Actions:    Elevation of ribs

Serratus posterior inferior

Actions:    Depression of ribs

43

Usually, nerves and blood vessels supply their muscles on the muscles?

 

This allows for?

deep surface

protection

44

What are these two triangles?

Q image thumb

The Superior one?

Triangle of auscultation

 

Inferior one?

Lumbar triangle of Petit

45

The what  is a back landmark that allows lung sounds to be heard clearly because no muscle intervenes between skin and rib cage?

Triangle of auscultation

 

46

What is often the site for hernias of retroperitoneal contents through posterior abdominal wall?

Lumbar triangle of Petit

 

47

Deep back muscles Act to maintain _____ and control movements of the ____ ____ (flexion, extension, lateral flexion, rotation). They are found deep to the ____ ____ of cervical regions (_____ ____/____) and thoracic/lumbar regions (______ ___).

posture

vertebral column

investing fascia

nuchal fascia/ligament

thoracolumbar fascia

48

purple

pink?

Q image thumb

Purple: Splenius cervicis

pink- Splenius capitus

49

What are the actions of the spenius cervicis and splenius capitus?

 

-Unilateral contraction yields lateral flexion of neck and rotation of head to side of contraction

-Bilateral contraction yields head and neck extension

50

What is the origin and insertion for the splenius capitus and splenius cervicis?

Origin: Lower cervical and upper thoracic spinous processes

 

Insertion: Capitus:  Mastoid process, superior nuchal line

  Cervicis: Upper cervical transverse processes

51

In the Deep back, you can find the ____ ____ muscles that exist as a common muscle mass that splits into three parts. What are the three parts from later to medial?

\Erector spinae

Iliocostalis:

  Longissimus

  Spinalis

52

What are the erector spinae muscle insertions and orgins?

Origins:    Iliac crest, sacrum

Insertions: 

Iliocostalis:     angles of lower ribs, cervical transverse processes

  Longissimus:  angles of ribs, cervical/thoracic transverse processes, mastoid process

  Spinalis:  spinous processes

53

Green 

yellow

both blues?

What do they span before inserting distally?

Q image thumb

Green

GREEN Semispinalis spans 4-6 vertebrae before inserting distally

YELLOW Multifidus spans 2-4 vertebrae before inserting distally

BLUE Rotators span 1-2 vertebrae before inserting distally

54

What's in the green? what's poking out behind it?

Q image thumb

semispinalis capitus

greater occipital nerves

55

Purple?

being pointed at?

Q image thumb

semispinalis cervicis

C2

56

What is this?

What action does it do?

Q image thumb

Multifidus

Actions:  Unilateral contraction rotates to contralateral side;  stabilizes vertebrae

57