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Flashcards in Back & Upper Limb Deck (98):
1

Different types of muscles of the back and upper limb

Superficial/Extrinsic
Deep/intrinsic

2

What are the 4 superficial back muscles

Trapezius
Rhomboid
Levatator scapulae
Latissimus Dorsi

3

Major function of the superficial back muscles

Moving upper limbs

4

What does trapezius attach to

Girdle and spinal cord

5

What does rhomboid attach to

Spinesof vertebra and scapula

6

What does Levatator scapulae attach to

Scapular and neck

7

What does latisumus dorsi attach to

Humerous and coloumn

8

What is the biggest superfical muscle

Latissimus Dorsi

9

What are the two deep back muscles

Erector spinae
Transversospinalis

10

Erector spinae

Prime movers
Control flex and extension

11

Transversospinalis

Underneath erector spinae
Short
Stabilising
Prevents excess movement

12

What is the difference between superficial and deep back muscles?

Superficial control the upper limbs while deep muscles attach to the vertebrae and control spinal posture and movement

13

The posterior ramus innervates

Facets
Intrinsic muscles
Skin above the muscles

14

Lumbar fascia is the attachment site for

Extrinsic/superficial muscles and erector spinae

15

Different types of disk prolapses

Bulge of the nucleus
Herniation
Extrusion

16

What can a disk prolapse lead to

Spinal nerve probs

17

Two types of joint degradation

Thinning of the articular cartilage
Osteophytes

18

Osteophytes

Bony formations on joints

19

'Upper Limbs' consists of

Girdle
Arms
Forearms
Hands

20

Shoulder girdle comprises

Clavicle
Scapula
Humerous

21

Clavicle

Collar bone
Long bone
Muscles and ligaments attach to the acromial and sternal ends

22

Scapula

Shoulder blades
Flat bone

23

Depressions found on the scapula

Fossae
--> muscle attachment

24

Two processes found on scapula

Acromion and caracoid

25

Acromion process is found

Tip of the shoulder

26

Glenoid fossa

Shoulder joint

27

Humerus

Upper arm bone
Long bone
Smooth head

28

Humerus joint

Synovial

29

2 necks of humerus

Surgical and anatomical

30

Tuberosities of humerus

Muscle attachment --> greater and lesser tuberosities

Greater --> Posterior by head
Lesser --> Anterior by head

31

Bicepital groove

Found on humerus
Lodges the long tendon of the Biceps brachii
Anterior

32

Define Epicondyle

A rounded projection at the end of a bone, located on or above a condyle and usually serving as a place of attachment for ligaments and tendons.

33

Condyles

Found on humerous --> trochlea and capitulum

34

Forearm consists of

Ulna and Radius

35

Ulna

Medial long bone
Proximal end = bigger than radius therefore smaller at the wrist

36

Radius

Lateral long bone
Prox end = smaller than ulna therefore bigger at the wrist

37

Interosseous membrane

Connects the ulna and radius together --> allowing them to work together.
Deep fascia
Transmits force

38

4 Tuberosities on ulna

Olcranon
Coronoid
Ulnar
Styloid

39

2 Tuberosities on Radius

Radial
Styloid

40

What are the bones of the hand

Carpels
Metacarpels
Phalanges

41

Carpel bones

8 bones -> 2 rows of 4
Curved --> carpal arch

42

What joins the carpal bones together

Retinaculae

43

How many metacarpals are on one hand

5

44

How many phalange bones are on one hand

Each finger has 3
Thumber has 2
So 14 bones

45

Describe a stable joint

Limits movement
Tight capsule
Strong ligaments
Congruent articular surfaces

46

Describe a mobile joint

Ball and sockets
Not very stable --> depends on the muscles
Susceptible to dislocation

47

Two types of clavicle joints

Acromioclavicular joint (AC joint) and sternoclavicular joint

48

Acriomioclavicular Joint (AC joint)

Connects the acromion of the scapula and clavicle together
Saddle joint
Strong
Complex -> has a disk in the joint
Costroclavicular ligament

49

Sternoclavicular joint

Connects the clavicle with the sternum
Plane
Synovial
Weak
Stabilised by coracoclavicular ligament

50

Shoulder joints

Glenohumeral joint
Scapula-thoracic joint

51

Glenohumeral joint

Connects scapula to humerous
Ball and socket --> synovial
Unstable
Glenoid labrum and glenoid cavity

52

Glenoid labrum

Found in glenohumeral joint --> deepends the socket

53

The glenoid is supported by

Coraccacromia ligaments
Long head of bicep
Rotator cuff muscles

54

Rotator cuff muscles

Subscapularis
Supraspinatus
Intraspinatus
Teres minor

55

Scapula-thoracic joint

NOT A TRUE JOINT --> Physiological joint --> no bone-on-bone articulation

56

Is the scapular attached or mobile on the thoracic cage

Mobile - due to physiological scapula-thoracic joint

57

Elbow joint

Hinge type
Synovial
Reinforced by collateral ligs

58

Two forarm joints

Distal radioulnar joint
Prox radioulnar joint

59

What joints prox and distal radioulnar joints

Interosseous membrane

60

Distal and prox radioulnar joints

Pivot joints
Synovial
Aloows protonation and suppination

61

Where is the distal radioulnar joint found

Between the head of ulanr and ulnar notch on distal radius.

62

Wrist joint

Between the raidus and carpel bones
Synovial --> condyloid
Complex joint

63

The wrist joint allows movement

2 planes -> flex/ext & abd/add
PLUS it deviates --> circumduction

64

Three joints of the hand include

Midcarpal
Intercarpal joints
Carpometacarpal

65

Midcarpal joints are found

B/w distal rows of carpals

66

Intercapal joints are found

B/w bones of each carpal row

67

Carpmetacarpal joints

Found b/w carpals and metacarpals
Synovial --> saddle and condyloid

68

Two joints of the fingers

Metacarpophalangeal
Interphalangeal

69

Metacarpophalangeal joints

Knuckles
Hinge --> flex/ext
Condyloid -> abd/add

70

Interphalangeal joint

Found between the bones of phalanges
Hinge --> 1 movement

71

Common sites for a fractured humerous

Surgical neck
Mid shaft
Supracondular

72

How can you tell if a person has a fractured clavicle

Clavical falls down due to gravity --> upper limb falls down with it too!

73

Wrist fracture

V. common
Also called colles fracture
Looks like a dinner fork lining down

74

Scaphoid fracture

Uncommon --> when you fall on outstretched hand

75

What is the most common shoulder dislocation

Anterior = common
Posterior = uncommon
DUE to glenohumeral joint --> makes the humerus drop inferiorly

76

What are the 6 movements of the upper limb

Flex
Ext
Abduction & adduction
protracting and retracting
Medial and lat. rotation
Circumflexion

77

2 types of forearm movements

Ext/flex
pro/sup

78

2 types of hand movement

Ext/flex
Abd/add

79

2 types of finger movement

Ext/flex
Abd/add

80

What is the function of: Cervical Nerves "C"

supply movement and feeling to the arms, neck and upper trunk. Also control breathing

81

What is the function of: Thoracic Nerves "T"

supply the trunk and abdomen

82

What is the function of: Lumbar Nerves "L" and Sacral Nerves "S"

supply the legs, the bladder, bowel and sexual organs

83

Nerves within the spinal cord are in which two groups

Ascending and Descending tracts.

84

Ascending tract nerves in the spinal cord do what?

carry sensory information from the body, upwards to the brain, such as touch, skin temperature, pain and joint position.

85

Descending tracts in the spinal cord do what?

carry information from the brain downwards to initiate movement and control body functions

86

How many vertebrae are there all together

26

87

What do the dorsal root ganglia contain

cell bodies of sensory neurons

88

What do the Ventral roots consist of

motor neurons

89

Are spinal nerves part of PNS or CNS

PNS

90

The two primary branches of a spinal nerve are called the


Ventral primary ramus - both motor and sensory
Dorsal primary ramus - both motor and sensory

91

Comparison of the function of roots vs. the function of rami

Roots are EITHER motor OR sensory (ventral = motor, dorsal = sensory)
Rami are BOTH motor AND sensory (contain a mixture of motor and sensory axons)

92

Plane synovial joints allow movement in how many directions

One --> gliding

93

What's the difference between a sugrical and anatomical neck?

surgical neck of a long bone is that part of the bone which has an artery, vein or a nerve near it
anatomical - the site of epiphyseal fusion of the long bone

94

Define tuberosity

protuberance on a bone especially for attachment of a muscle or ligament

95

What are the two epicondyles of the humerus

Medial and lateral

96

Medial epicondyle of humerus

larger and more prominent than the lateral epicondyle
slightly more posteriorly

97

What nerve runs around the groove of the medial epicondyle

The ulnar nerve runs in a groove on the back of this epicondyle.

98

Difference between condyle and epicondyle

A condyle is a general term for a smooth round articular surface on a bone. An epicondyle is a projection above a condyle.