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Flashcards in Back & Upper Limb Muscles Deck (83):
1

Fascia

Connective tissue
Surrounds all muscles
Allows the muscles to glide in relation to each other

2

Two types of fascia in upper limb

Brancial fascia --> arm
Antebrachial fascia --> forearm

3

Interosseous membrane

Specialised fascia
Binds radius and ulna
Attaches to flex and ext muscles

4

Retinacula

Specialised deep fascia of wrist
Binds tends down and prevents bow string
Protects nerves and vessels

5

Flexor retinculum

Specialised fascia
Roof of carpal tunnel
Has tendons
Median nerve

6

4 Main types of muscles

Synergist
Prime movers
Antagonist
Stabilisers

7

Prime movers

cause the movement to occur. They create the normal range of movement in a joint by contracting

8

Synergist

These muscles perform, or assist in performing, the same set of joint motion as the prime movers

9

Antagonist

These muscles act in opposition to the movement generated by the prime movers and are responsible for returning a limb to its initial position

10

Stabilisers

These muscles provide the necessary support to assist in holding the rest of the body in place while the movement occurs

11

What are the 5 superfical back muscles

Trapezius
Levatator scapulae
Rhomoid minor
Rhomoid Major
Lattissimus dorsi

12

What are the 2 largest muscles of front?

Pectoralis major
Serratus anterior

13

What do the muscles of the shoulder/scapula attach to and act on?

Upper Limb

14

What are the four muscles of the shoulder/scapula

Trapezius
Deltoid
Seartus anterior
Pectoral muscles

15

What are the four rotator cuff muscles

Supraspinatus
Teres Minor
Infraspinatus
Subscapularis

16

What is the role of the four rotator cuff muscles

Fixators --> blend with joint capsule
Prime movers --> rotation and abduction

17

Role of supraspinatus

abducts arm

18

What are the muscles of the arm

Biceps brachii
Coracobrachiallis
Brachialis
Triceps Brachii

19

What are the two compartments of arm muscles

Anterior and Posterior

20

What are the anterior muscles of the arm and what is their function

Biceps Brachii
Coracobrachialis
Brachialis

Function - elbow flexors

21

What are the posterior muscles of the arm and what are their functions

Triceps brachii
Elbow extensors

22

What are the two muscle compartments of the forearm

Posterior and Anterior

23

How many layers of muscles do the post and ant compartments of the forearm have

Post - 3 layers -> superficial, intermediate, deep
Ant - 2 layers --> superficial, deep

24

Where do the superficial anterior muscles of the forearm originate from?

Medial epicondyle

25

Where do the superficial posterior muscles of the forearm originate from

Lateral epicondyle

26

Where do the intermediate ant. muscles of the forearm originate from

Medial epicondyl and radius and ulna

27

Where do the deep ant. muscles of the forearm originate from

Radius and ulna only

28

Where do the post. and ant. forearm muscles pass under to get to the wrist?

Post --> extensor retinaculum
Ant --> flexor retinaculum

29

Thenar Eminence

Bulk of the muscle in the palm at the base of the thumb

30

Hyperthenar eminence

Thinner than thenar eminence and is found on the medial edge of palm
--> base of the little finger

31

Where are the muscles of the hand found

ONLY anteriorly

32

What are the 4 types of hand muscles

Thenar muscles
Hypothenar muscles
Lumbricals
Interosse

33

number of thenar muscles per hand

4

34

Number of hypothenar muscles per hand

3

35

Number of lumbricals per hand

4

36

Number of interosse per hand

7

37

Where are lumbricals and interrosse found?

In between the metacrapals

38

What is the role of hand muscles?

NOT power
Ability --> smooth, fine movement

39

Where are you likely to find anastomisis

Around joints -> no constriction of vessels etc.

40

Major artery in the upper limb

Aorta --> Subclavian artery --> axillary artery --> brachial artery

41

Where is the subclavian artery found

Behind clavicle

42

Where is the axillary art. found

Opposite side of the clavicle (as opposed to subclavian)

43

Where is the brachial art found

Below shoulder -> well protected by biceps

44

What is the major artery of the forearm

Brachial artery

45

Where about is the brachial artery found in the forearm

Ventro-medial aspect of the arm

46

What does the brachial art. split into in the forearm

Radial art
Ulna art

47

Why do we take blood pressure in the forarm?

The brachial artery blood pressure is the same as the hearts blood pressure

48

Do arteries pass over or under retinicula

Pass over --> no compression

49

Cubital fossa

triiangular area on the anterior view of the elbow

50

Contents of cubital fossa

(My Blood Turns Red)
Medial nerve
Brachial Art
Tendon of Bicep
Radial Nerve

51

The difference between radial and ulnar artery

Radial artery = superficial --> lateral
Ulnar artery = deeper --> medial

52

Where does the radial artery originate and terminate

Cubitol fossa --> origin
Palmar arch --> terminates
** lateral and superficial

53

Where does the ulnar artery originate and terminate

Cubitol fossa --> origin
Superficial palmar arch --> terminates
**medial and deeper

54

What is the principle blood supply of the forearm and hand

Ulna art.

55

What are the digital arteries considered as

End arteries --> vulnerable to vasoconstrictor drugs

56

Volkmanns ischemic contraction

When you fall back on hand
Humerous breaks from condyl --> Radius and ulan go radially
Stretchs brachial art --> constricts blood flow

57

Ischaemia

Muscle looses blood supply and contracts

58

Fracture scaphoid

Ischaemia leads to avascular necrosis

59

What are the 2 main superficial veins of the arm

Cephalic vein
Basalic vein

60

How do the cephalic and basalic veins communicate

via median cubital

61

Where are the superfical veins of the arm found

Superficial fascia

62

Where do the superficial veins of the arm enter the hand

Posteriorly

63

Where do the upper limb nerves originate from

Brachial plexus
Arise from cerv & thoracic spinal seg --> C5 - T1

64

Where do the upper limb nerves enter via?

Anterior rami

65

What do posterior rami innervate?

Joints
Intrinsic muscles of the back
Skin overlying that region

66

Do posterior or anterior rami form plexus?

ONLY anterior

67

What does the brachial plexus divide into

Anterior division --> anterior compartment muscles
Posterior division --> posterior compartment muscles

68

What are the nerves that the anterior division of the brachial plexus supplies

Musculocutaneous, median, ulnar and flexor compartment

69

What are the nerves that the posterior division of the brachial plexus supplies

Extensors
Axillary
Radial

70

Where does the musculocutaneous nerve arise from

C5,6,7

71

What does musculocutaneous nerve supply

Flexors of the elbow
Skin --> lateral aspect of forearm

72

Where do the median nerve arise from

C5-8, T1

73

What does the median nerve supply

ant. compartment of forearm
Most of thumb
Flexors of wrist and fingers
Palmer 3.5 digits

74

Does the median nerve pass UNDER or OVER carpel tunnel

under

75

Where does the ulnar nerve arise from

C8, T1

76

What does the ulnar nerve supply

Hand --> intrinsic muscle
medial -> 1.5 digit

77

What injury is the ulnar nerve susceptible to

Compression/ stretching

78

What injury is the median nerve susceptible to

Compression --> motor and sensory loss

79

Where does the axillary nerve arise from

C5, C6

80

What does the axillary nerve supply

Shoulder
Deltoid
Skin over the shoulder

81

What does the radial nerve supply

Extensors arm and forearm
Triceps
Skin --> posterior arm and forearm and back of hand

82

Where does the radial nerve originate from

C5, 6, 7, 8 AND t1

83

What damage is the radial nerve prone to

It runs across shaft of humerus --> humeral shaft fracture --> compression --> wrist drop