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Flashcards in Background Material Deck (43):
1

Two broad categories of joint classification:

Synarthroses (nonsynovial joints)
Diarthroses (synovial joints – most of the joints in the body are this type)

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Synarthroses joint types

Fibrous joints
Cartilaginous joints

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Fibrous joints

Suture
Syndesmosis
Gomphosis

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Cartilaginous joints

Symphysis
Synchondrosis

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Suture (Fibrous)

Sutures of skull: As we age the bones grow together to form a synostosis where little or no movement is possible.

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Syndesmosis (Fibrous)

a type of fibrous joint in which two bones are joined directly by a ligament, cord or aponeurotic membrane

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Gomphosis (Fibrous)

the two bony components are adapted to each other like a peg in a hole. The two components are connected by fibrous tissue.

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Symphysis (Cartilaginous)

the two bony components are directly joined by fibrocartilage in the form of disks or plates

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Synchondrosis (Cartilaginous)

Permanent and temporary connect of hyaline growth cartilage.

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movement in the sagittal plane, from anatomical position

Flexion

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movement in the sagittal plane, back to anatomical position

Extension

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movement in the frontal plane, away from the midline of the body or segment

Abduction

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movement in the frontal plane, toward the midline of the body or segment

Adduction

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movement in the transverse plane, reference point turns away from midline or reference point of the body

External rotation

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movement in the transverse plane, reference point turns toward the midline or reference point on the body

Internal rotation

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movement in the transverse plane, away from the midline of the body (used for hip and shoulder)

Horizontal abduction

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movement in the transverse plane, toward the midline of the body

Horizontal adduction

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movement in the frontal plane, away from the midline of the body (neck/trunk)

Lateral flexion

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foot movement, reference segment moves toward midline

Inversion

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foot movement, reference segment moves away from midline

Eversion

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foot movement (triplanar) combination of inversion, horizontal adduction and plantar flexion (all referenced to the calcaneus)
forearm movement - turning the palm of the hand up

Supination

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foot movement (triplanar) combination of eversion, horizontal abduction and dorsi flexion (all referenced to the calcaneus)
forearm movement - turning the palm of the hand down

Pronation

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foot movement towards the plantar surface

Plantar flexion

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foot movement towards the dorsal surface

Dorsi flexion

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movement of a segment anteriorly

Protraction

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movement of a segment posteriorly

Retraction

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Flexion

movement in the sagittal plane, from anatomical position

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Extension

movement in the sagittal plane, back to anatomical position

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Abduction

movement in the frontal plane, away from the midline of the body or segment

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Adduction

movement in the frontal plane, toward the midline of the body or segment

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External rotation

movement in the transverse plane, reference point turns away from midline or reference point of the body

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Internal rotation

movement in the transverse plane, reference point turns toward the midline or reference point on the body

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Horizontal abduction

movement in the transverse plane, away from the midline of the body (used for hip and shoulder)

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Horizontal adduction

movement in the transverse plane, toward the midline of the body

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Lateral flexion

movement in the frontal plane, away from the midline of the body (neck/trunk)

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Inversion

foot movement, reference segment moves toward midline

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Eversion

foot movement, reference segment moves away from midline

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Supination

foot movement (triplanar) combination of inversion, horizontal adduction and plantar flexion (all referenced to the calcaneus)
forearm movement - turning the palm of the hand up

39

Pronation

foot movement (triplanar) combination of eversion, horizontal abduction and dorsi flexion (all referenced to the calcaneus)
forearm movement - turning the palm of the hand down

40

Plantar flexion

foot movement towards the plantar surface

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Dorsi flexion

foot movement towards the dorsal surface

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Protraction

movement of a segment anteriorly

43

Retraction

movement of a segment posteriorly