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Flashcards in BACTE LAB - What is TB Deck (40):
1

DOTS meaning

direct observed treatment short course

2

NTP meaning

National TB Control Program

3

of the 22 countries with 80% of the world's TB, how many are classified as low-income countries

17

4

in terms of TB morbidity, what is the rank of the Phil in Western Pacific region

3rd (based on case notification rates)

5

in terms of TB morbidity, what is the rank of the Phil worldwide

9th (based on WHO watch list)

6

how many people die yearly from the disease

2.3 M

7

increased deaths are due to

drug-resistant TB
co-infections of TB
HIV infection

8

In the Phil, TB ranks as the _th cause of morbidity and mortality

6th

9

how many filipinos die of TB daily

average 75 - 80 Filipinos

10

Phil ranked _th among countries with high burden of MDR-TB

8th

11

agents of TB

M. tuberculosis
M. bovis (occasionally)

12

characteristics of M. tuberculosis and M. bovis (3)

acid-fast with waxy or mycolic acid cell wall
obligate aerobes
slow growing on Lowenstein Jensen medium

13

distinguishing characteristics of M. tuberculosis

produces niacin
nitrate reduction positive
catalase negative at 68C
thiopene 2 carboxylic acid (TCH) resistant

14

main pathogens of M. tuberculosis complex

M. tuberculosis
M. bovis

15

M. tuberculosis M. bovis are also known as _____ because they produce characteristic lesions called tubercles

tubercle bacilli

16

acid-fast bacilli appear ___ on a ___background

red on a blue background

17

2 forms of TB

PTB
EPTB

18

How does EPTB spread (3)

Blood stream
Lymphatic and bronchial systems
Direct extension

19

Transmission of bacilli from person to person occurs almost exclusively by

air

20

primary source of infection

person w/ PTB who coughs and spreads infected droplets

21

where does transmission of PTB occur

poorly ventilated closed areas

22

micro aerosols that remain suspended in the air for long periods of time

droplet nuclei

23

how are droplet nuclei removed

adequate ventilation

24

mycobacterium can survive these 2 conditions

darkness/dark areas
humid environment

25

what can kill tubercle bacilli

direct sunlight (Ultraviolet rays)

26

predisposing factors

poverty
cell-mediated immuno-suppression
HIV infection

27

this condition increases the risk of getting TB disease

HIV

28

HIV negative have 10% ____risk

life time risk

29

HIV positive have 10% ____risk

annual risk

30

TB resistant to isoniazid and rifampicin

MDR-TB

31

First line drugs
used to treat all persons with TB disease

isoniazid and rifampicin

32

rare type of MDR-TB

XDR-TB

33

resistant to isoniazid and rifampicin
resistant to any fluoroquinolone and at least one of the 3 injectable second-line drugs (amikacin, kanamycin, capreomycin)

XDR-TB

34

3 injectable second-line drugs

amikacin, kanamycin, capreomycin

35

Most widely available test for microbiological diagnosis of TB

sputum smear microscopy

36

Causes of major delays in diagnosing tuberculosis

patient not seeking care
provider not suspecting the disease

37

Active against Mtb complex
May cause transient improvements
Should be avoided

Fluoroquinolones

38

For patients with sputum smear negative PTB, what type of specimen should be prepared

Sputum culture

39

For serious ill patients or those with known or suspected HIV, (what must be done)

Diagnostic evaluation must be expedited
If clinical evidence suggests strongly of tb, anti tb treatment must be initiated

40

ISTC meaning

International Standards for Tuberculosis Care

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