BACTE LEC - Quiz 1 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in BACTE LEC - Quiz 1 Deck (65):
1

source of infecting agent

Reservoir

2

means by which humans may acquire microorganisms

Mode of Transmission

3

living entity that transmit microorganism from the reservoir to host

Vectors

4

nonliving entity that transmit microorganism from the reservoir to host

Vehicle or Fomite

5

Identify bacteria present in Chicken



– Salmonella spp.

6

Identify bacteria present in Rat’s urine

– Leptospira interrogans (cause of leptospirosis)

7

Identify bacteria present in Cat’s scratch –

Bartonella henselae

8

Identify bacteria present in Tick in rats –

Yersinia pestis

9

fever caused by ticks

*Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever –

10

Many fungal agents are acquired by ??? of soil and dust particles containing microorganisms and through ???

inhalation
penetration of wounds

11

Factors that Cause Diseases

1. Status of host’s immune system
2. Protection from microbial invasion
3. Inherent microbial factors

12

Types of Microbial Flora
- commonly found on or in body sites
-beneficial: compete against pathogenic bacteria for nutrients and space so these pathogens won’t be able to use it to their advantage
-overpopulate so pathogens will not be able to live at a certain site of the body

1. Normal, usually indigenous flora

13

Types of Microbial Flora
colonize an area for months/years

resident

14

hosts with pathogenic organism but not manifesting symptoms, capable of transmitting infections

carrier

15

Types of Microbial Flora
present at a site temporarily

transient

16

bacteria always present on skin/nose

Staphylococcus aureus

17

infection caused by microbes with low virulence but becomes pathogenic in a host with low immunologic response

Opportunistic infection

18

Composition of Microbial Flora at Different Body Sites
Skin


sebaceous/sweat glands, squamous cells (keep on shedding/dislodging bacteria)

19

Composition of Microbial Flora at Different Body Sites
mouth

low redox potential at tooth surfaces (anaerobes)

20

Composition of Microbial Flora at Different Body Sites
Respiratory tract

alveolar macrophages
delivery of air from the outside of body to pulmonary tissues

21

Composition of Microbial Flora at Different Body Sites
Sweat

contains lysozymes which destroy bacterial cell wall

22

found in sweat, destroys bacterial cell wall

lysozymes

23

found in respiratory tract, phagocytose

alveolar macrophages

24

Composition of Microbial Flora at Different Body Sites
GIT

gastric acidity

25

PATHOGENESIS OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES (2)

a. Suppression by immunosuppressive drugs, chemotherapy or radiation
b. Individuals with lymphoma, leukemia, chronic illnesses, cirrhosis

26

invasion of a pathogen with structural or functional harm, characterized by signs and symptoms

*Infectious diseases

27

bacteria in oyster

Vibrio cholera

28

invasion or growth of a pathogen

Infection

29

infection which develop quickly

Acute infection

30

infection which develop and progress slowly, sometimes in a period of years

Chronic infection

31

disease which spread from one person to another or from an animal to a person
-spread often happens via airborne viruses or bacteria, but also through blood or other bodily fluid

*Communicable/contagious/infectious -

32

disease which do not spread from one person to another or from an animal to a person

*Non-communicable

33

– cases are isolated in a given community, disease occurs only rarely and without regularity

Sporadic

34

steady cases of occurrence of disease in a given area

endemic

35

sudden increase of infection in a given area)

outbreak

36

continuous increase of infection

epidemic

37

occurs worldwide (Ex. Ebola)

pandemic

38

opposite of endemic

outbreak

39

– the spread of diseases; new cases of infection

Incidence of disease

40

– study of present and previous infection
-how seriously and how long it affects a population

Prevalence of the disease

41

– make the body more susceptible to disease or alters the course of a disease

Predisposing Factors

42

what are the predisposing factors (9)

• Gender
• Age
• Fatigue
• Environment
• Lifestyle
• Pre-existing illness
• Chemotherapy
• Emotional disturbances
• Habits

43

Patterns of Disease (normal cycle)
time when the person developed the disease but is not manifesting signs and symptoms, lag phase

incubation period

44

Patterns of Disease (normal cycle)
varies, time when the person Is exposed to an agent

prodromal

45

Patterns of Disease (normal cycle)
manifesting signs and symptoms

illlness

46

Patterns of Disease (normal cycle)
time when the person is starting to feel better; signs and symptoms subside

decline

47

Patterns of Disease (normal cycle)
development of antibody

convalescence

48

Pathogenic Determinants (Elements of the microorganism that prevent it from being killed and thus be able to infect another organism)

1. Adhesins
2. Capsule – prevents phagocytosis
3. Cell Wall Components

49

type of toxin
toxic substances secreted by bacteria and released outside the cell



1. Exotoxins

50

bacterial toxins consisting of lipids that are located within a cell

Endotoxins

51

type of toxin
produced by Gram-positive

exotoxins

52

type of toxin
protein in nature

exotoxins

53

type of toxin
effects: specific for a particular cell structure or functions in the host

exotoxins

54

type of toxin
produced by Gram-negative

Endotoxins

55

type of toxin
lipopolysaccharides (LPS) in nature

Endotoxins

56

type of toxin
effects: general such as fever, weaknesses, aches and shock all have the same effects

Endotoxins

57

– a toxin having a specific toxic action on cells of special organs



Cytotoxins

58

cause massive RBC destruction

hemolysin

59

related to food poisoning and cause diarrhea

enterotoxin

60

-inhibits protein synthesis

diphtheria toxin

61

causes skin layers to exfoliate and slough off

exfoliative toxin

62

prevents transmission of nerve impulses causing flaccid paralysis

(botulinum toxin)

63

-causes vasodilation resulting in characteristic rash (Scarlet fever)

CYTOTOXIN

64

-associated with toxic shock syndrome

(TSST-1)

65

– canned good bacilli, anaerobic

Clostridium botulinum

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