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Flashcards in Bacteria Deck (95):
1

What are the types of bacteria? 

  1. Gram positive cocci
  2. Gram negative cocci
  3. Gram positive bacilli 
  4. Gram negative bacilli 

2

Give 7 clinically important Gram positive cocci

  1. Staphylococcus aureus 
  2. CoNS (Coagulate negative Staphylococci)
  3. Streptococcus pyogenes (ß-haemolytic streptococcus)
  4. Group B streptococci
  5. Streptococcus pneumoniae 
  6. Viridans streptococci
  7. Enterococci

3

Give 2 clinically important Gram negative cocci

  1. Neisseria meningitis 
  2. Neisseria gonorrheoa 

4

Give 8 clinically important Gram positive bacilli

  1. Listeria
  2. Corynebacterium diptheriae 
  3. Bacillus cereus
  4. Clostridium perfringes
  5. Clostridium difficile
  6. Mycobacterium tuberculosis 
  7. Mycobacterium leprae 
  8. Non-tuberculous mycobacteria

5

Give 16 clinically important Gram negative bacilli

  1. E coli
  2. Salmonella species
  3. Shigella 
  4. Klesiella species
  5. Proteus
  6. Pseudomonas aeruginosa
  7. Haemophilus influenzae 
  8. Bordetella pertussis
  9. Burkholdera species
  10. Brucella species
  11. Legionella species
  12. Vibrio cholerae 
  13. Campylobacter species
  14. Helicobacter pylori 
  15. Bacteriosides species
  16. Treponema pallidum 

6

Give 2 clinically important bacteria that do not fall into any of the 4 main categories

  1. Chlamydia species 
  2. Mycoplasma species

7

What diseases are caused by staphylococcus aureus? 

  • Infections of skin and soft tissue
  • Food poisioning 
  • Septicaemia

8

What is the antibiotic used to treat diseases caused by staphylcoccus aureus? 

Penicillinase resistant penicillin- Flucloxacillin

9

Give an example of a CoNS bacteria

S. epidermidis 

10

What diseases are caused by CoNS? 

Opportunistic pathogens that often cause infection related to medial devices, e.g. IV cannulae, prosthetic heart valves

11

What is the antibiotic given to treat diseases caused by CoNS?

Flucloxacillin (normally sensitive to this, if not can add glycopeptide, e.g. vancomycin)

12

What diseases are caused by streptococcus pyogenes?

  • Pharyngitis and other URTIs
  • Skin and soft tissue infections (impetigo, cellulitis)
  • Scarlet fever
  • TSS
  • Acute rheumatic fever
  • Acute glomerulonephritis 

13

What antibiotic is given to treat diseases caused by streptococcus pyogenes?

  • Penicillin
  • Erythomycin (if penicillin allergic)

14

What diseases are caused by group B streptococci? 

  • Neonatal meningitis
  • Septicaemia 

15

What antibiotic is given to treat diseases caused by group B streptococci?

Penicillin or amoxicillin and gentamicin

16

What diseases are caused by streptococcus pneumoniae?

  • Pneumonia
  • Meningitis
  • Septicaemia
  • Otitis media

17

What antibiotics are given to treat diseases caused by streptococcus pneumoniae?

  • Amoxicillin and other ß-lactams
  • Erythomycin

18

What vaccine is given to prevent diseases caused by streptococcus pneumoniae? 

Pneumococcal vaccination

19

What diseases are caused by viridans streptococci? 

Endogenous infections, especially infective endocarditis 

20

What diseases are caused by enterococci? 

They are opportunisitic pathogens, causing UTIs and endocarditis 

21

What antibiotics are given to treat diseases caused by entercocci? 

Amoxicillin or vancomycin, often with gentamicin

22

Why is vancomycin often given with gentamicin when treating enterococci infections? 

Concerns with VRE (Vancomycin-resistant enterococci)

23

What diseases are caused by neisseria meningitidis? 

  • Meningitis 
  • Septicaemia

24

Where is neisseria meningitidis carried in the body? 

In the nasopharynx

25

What feature of neisseria meningitidis assists in its colonisation? 

Its coat protects against phagocytosis 

26

What antibiotic is given to treat diseases caused by neisseria meningitidis? 

Cefotaxime

27

What vaccine is given to prevent diseases caused by neisseria meningitidis? 

Meningococcal type C vaccine 

No vaccine for serogroup B 

28

What diseases are caused by neisseria gonorrhoea? 

Gonorrhoea 

29

What is gonorrhoea? 

Infection of GU tract 

30

What is the consequence of gonorrhoea? 

  • PID (Pelvic Inflammatory Disease) in females
  • Epididymitis in males 

31

How are the neisseria bacteria similar to each other? 

They are both carried in the nasopharynx, and both have a coat that protects against phagocytosis 

32

What antibiotics are given to treat infections caused by neisseria gonorrhoea? 

  • Ciprofloxacin
  • ß-lactamase resistant cephalosporins

33

What diseases are caused by listeria? 

  • Meningitis and septicaemia in neonates 
  • Infections in immunocomprimised and pregnant women

34

What antibiotic is given to treat diseases caused by listeria? 

Amoxicillin, often with gentamicin 

35

What disease is caused by corynebacterium diptheriae? 

Diphtheria 

36

What is the treatment for diphtheria? 

  • Supportive therapy to maintain airway
  • Anti-toxin
  • Erythromycin

37

What vaccine is given to prevent diptheria?

Toxoid vaccine

38

What diseases does bacillus cereus cause? 

Food poisioning- commonest association is with reheated rice and pulses

39

What is the treatment for diseases caused by bacillus cereus? 

None- it is self-limiting

40

What diseases are caused by clostridium perfringens?

Infections of wounds- gas gangrene

41

What antibiotic is given to treat diseases caused by clostridium perfringens?

Penicillin or metronidazole

42

What diseases are caused by clostridium difficile?

Antibiotic associated diarrhoea, leading to psuedomonas colitis

43

What antibiotics are given to treat diseases caused by clostridium difficile?

Oral vancomycin or metronidazole

44

What diseases are caused by mycobacterium tuberculosis?

Tuberculosis- primary, latent, and miliary

45

What antibiotics are given to treat diseases caused by M. tuberculosis?

  • Isoniazid
  • Pyrazinamide
  • Ethambutol
  • Rifampicin

46

What vaccine is given to prevent infection with M. tuberculosis?

BCG vaccines

47

What diseases are caused by mycobacterium leprae? 

Tuberculoid and lepromatous leprosy 

48

What is leprosy? 

Non-caseating granulomas affecting nerve cells

49

What antibiotics are used to treat diseases caused by M. leprae? 

  • Dapsone
  • Clofazimine
  • Rifampicin 

50

What vaccine is given to prevent infection with M. leprae? 

BCG vaccine offers some protection

51

Describe the nature of non-tuberculous mycobacteria 

  • Rapid or slow growing 
  • Opportunistic 

52

Give an example of a non-tuberculous mycobacteria

Mycobacteria avium complex

53

What disease does M. avium complex cause? 

Disseminated disease in AIDS patients

54

What diseases are caused by E coli? 

  • Most common cause of cystitis
  • Regularly seen in GNS
  • Some strains cause diarrheol disease
  • Haemolytic urea syndrome (HUS)

55

What kind of disease is cystitis? 

UTI

56

What strains of E coli cause diarrhoeal disease? 

  • ETEC
  • EIEC
  • EHEC
  • EPEC

57

What strains of E coli cause haemolytic urea syndrome? 

EHEC strains possessing O157 H7 antigens 

58

What diseases does salmonella subtypes cause? 

  • Subtype typhi and parathyphi cause enteric fever 
  • Other subtypes cause diarrhoea 

59

What disease does shigella cause? 

Dysentery 

60

What is the main symptom of dysentery? 

Bloody diarrhoea 

61

What is the shigella toxin similar to? 

The EIEC strain of E coli

62

What diseases are caused by klebsiella subspecies? 

  • Often seen in UTIs and HAI (hospital-acquired infections)
  • Rare but classical cause of primary pneumonia

63

What disease is caused by proteus? 

Common cause of UTIs 

64

What is the result of UTIs caused by proteus? 

Produces potent urease, which makes urine alkaline and predisposes to renal stones 

65

What antibiotics are used to treat diseases caused by E coli, salmonella, shigella, klebsiella and proteus? 

  • Trimethoprim
  • Co-trimoxazole
  • Cefalexin
  • Ciprofloxacin

66

What diseases are caused by pseudomonas aeruginosa?

Opportunistic infection- wounds, burns, urinary tract, lungs (especially in cystic fibrosis)

67

What antibiotic is given to treat diseases caused by psuedomonas aeruginosa? 

  • Ciprofloaxin (resistant to most other oral antibiotics)
  • IV gentamicin 

 

68

What diseases are caused by haemophilus influenzae? 

  • Meningitis 
  • Osteomyelitis 
  • Epiglottis in children under 5 
  • Acute exacerbations of COPD

69

What strains of haemophilus influenzae are associated with acute exacerbations of COPD? 

Non-capsulate strains

70

What antibiotic is given to treat diseases caused by haemophilus influenzae? 

  • Amoxicillin
  • Chloramphenicol
  • Cefotaxime sometimes needed for meningitis due to resistance 

71

What vaccine is given to prevent diseases caused by haemophilus influenzae? 

Capsular polysaccharide vaccine

72

What disease is caused by brucella subspecies?

Undulant fever (brucellosis)

73

How does brucellosis present? 

Pyrexia of unknown origin (PUO)

74

What disease is caused by legionella subspecies? 

Atypical form of bronchopneumonia and Pontic fever

75

What antibiotics are given to treat disease caused by legionella subspecies? 

  • Erythromycin
  • Rifampicin 

76

What disease is caused by vibrio cholerae? 

Cholera 

77

What is the treatment for cholera? 

  • Oral rehydration therapy 
  • Tetracycline

78

What is the therapetic effect of tetracycline on cholera? 

Shortens symptoms and duration of carriage 

79

What disease is caused by campylobacter subspecies? 

Diarrhoea 

80

What is diarrhoea associated with campylobacter subspecies associated with? 

Contaminated food and milk

81

What is the treatment for diarrheoa caused by infection with campylobacter subspecies? 

Diarrhoea is self-limiting

If invasive, give erythromycin

82

What disease is caused by helicobacter pylori? 

  • Gastritis 
  • Cofactor in pathogenesis of duodenal ulceration
  • Associated with gastric cancer/ulcers 

83

What antibiotics are used to treat direct disease caused by helicobacter pylori? 

  • Amoxicillin
  • Metronidazole

84

Where does bacteroides subspecies cause disease? 

  • The subspecies bacteroides fragilis found in lower gastrointestinal tract
  • Most other subspecies found in mouth and upper respiratory tract

85

What diseases to bacteroides subspecies cause? 

  • Intra-abdominal infections 
  • Brain abscesses 
  • Dental sepsis 

86

What antibiotic is used to treat diseases caused by bacteroides subspecies? 

Metronidazole

87

What antibiotic is bacteroides fragilis resistant to? 

Penicillin 

88

What disease is caused by treponema pallidum? 

Syphilis 

89

What antibiotic is used to treat disease caused by treponema pallidum? 

Penicillin

90

What disease is caused by chlamydia subspecies? 

  • Chlamydia trachomatis can cause; 
    • Urethritis 
    • Trachoma
    • Cervicitis 
    • Salpingitis 
    • Pneumonitis in newborn
  • Cause of atypical pneumonias

91

What antibiotic is used to treat disease caused by chlamydia subspecies? 

  • Tetracyclines and erythromycin 
  • Azithromycin

92

What diseases are caused by mycoplasma subspecies? 

Mycoplasma pneumoniae is an important cause of atypical pneumonia 

93

What is infection with mycoplasma subspecies associated with?

  • Non-gonoccoal urethritis 
  • Pelvic inflammatory disease 
  • Joint and other post-infective inflammatory conditions

94

What antibiotic is used to treat disease caused by infection with mycoplasma subspecies? 

Tetracycline or erythromycin

95

Why can't ß-lactams be used to treat disease caused by mycoplasma subspecies? 

Because they have no cell wall