What are the types of bacteria?
- Gram positive cocci
- Gram negative cocci
- Gram positive bacilli
- Gram negative bacilli
Give 7 clinically important Gram positive cocci
- Staphylococcus aureus
- CoNS (Coagulate negative Staphylococci)
- Streptococcus pyogenes (ß-haemolytic streptococcus)
- Group B streptococci
- Streptococcus pneumoniae
- Viridans streptococci
Give 2 clinically important Gram negative cocci
- Neisseria meningitis
- Neisseria gonorrheoa
Give 8 clinically important Gram positive bacilli
- Corynebacterium diptheriae
- Bacillus cereus
- Clostridium perfringes
- Clostridium difficile
- Mycobacterium tuberculosis
- Mycobacterium leprae
- Non-tuberculous mycobacteria
Give 16 clinically important Gram negative bacilli
- E coli
- Salmonella species
- Klesiella species
- Pseudomonas aeruginosa
- Haemophilus influenzae
- Bordetella pertussis
- Burkholdera species
- Brucella species
- Legionella species
- Vibrio cholerae
- Campylobacter species
- Helicobacter pylori
- Bacteriosides species
- Treponema pallidum
Give 2 clinically important bacteria that do not fall into any of the 4 main categories
- Chlamydia species
- Mycoplasma species
What diseases are caused by staphylococcus aureus?
- Infections of skin and soft tissue
- Food poisioning
What is the antibiotic used to treat diseases caused by staphylcoccus aureus?
Penicillinase resistant penicillin- Flucloxacillin
Give an example of a CoNS bacteria
What diseases are caused by CoNS?
Opportunistic pathogens that often cause infection related to medial devices, e.g. IV cannulae, prosthetic heart valves
What is the antibiotic given to treat diseases caused by CoNS?
Flucloxacillin (normally sensitive to this, if not can add glycopeptide, e.g. vancomycin)
What diseases are caused by streptococcus pyogenes?
- Pharyngitis and other URTIs
- Skin and soft tissue infections (impetigo, cellulitis)
- Scarlet fever
- Acute rheumatic fever
- Acute glomerulonephritis
What antibiotic is given to treat diseases caused by streptococcus pyogenes?
- Erythomycin (if penicillin allergic)
What diseases are caused by group B streptococci?
- Neonatal meningitis
What antibiotic is given to treat diseases caused by group B streptococci?
Penicillin or amoxicillin and gentamicin
What diseases are caused by streptococcus pneumoniae?
- Otitis media
What antibiotics are given to treat diseases caused by streptococcus pneumoniae?
- Amoxicillin and other ß-lactams
What vaccine is given to prevent diseases caused by streptococcus pneumoniae?
What diseases are caused by viridans streptococci?
Endogenous infections, especially infective endocarditis
What diseases are caused by enterococci?
They are opportunisitic pathogens, causing UTIs and endocarditis
What antibiotics are given to treat diseases caused by entercocci?
Amoxicillin or vancomycin, often with gentamicin
Why is vancomycin often given with gentamicin when treating enterococci infections?
Concerns with VRE (Vancomycin-resistant enterococci)
What diseases are caused by neisseria meningitidis?
Where is neisseria meningitidis carried in the body?
In the nasopharynx
What feature of neisseria meningitidis assists in its colonisation?
Its coat protects against phagocytosis
What antibiotic is given to treat diseases caused by neisseria meningitidis?
What vaccine is given to prevent diseases caused by neisseria meningitidis?
Meningococcal type C vaccine
No vaccine for serogroup B
What diseases are caused by neisseria gonorrhoea?
What is gonorrhoea?
Infection of GU tract
What is the consequence of gonorrhoea?
- PID (Pelvic Inflammatory Disease) in females
- Epididymitis in males
How are the neisseria bacteria similar to each other?
They are both carried in the nasopharynx, and both have a coat that protects against phagocytosis
What antibiotics are given to treat infections caused by neisseria gonorrhoea?
- ß-lactamase resistant cephalosporins
What diseases are caused by listeria?
- Meningitis and septicaemia in neonates
- Infections in immunocomprimised and pregnant women
What antibiotic is given to treat diseases caused by listeria?
Amoxicillin, often with gentamicin
What disease is caused by corynebacterium diptheriae?
What is the treatment for diphtheria?
- Supportive therapy to maintain airway
What vaccine is given to prevent diptheria?
What diseases does bacillus cereus cause?
Food poisioning- commonest association is with reheated rice and pulses
What is the treatment for diseases caused by bacillus cereus?
None- it is self-limiting
What diseases are caused by clostridium perfringens?
Infections of wounds- gas gangrene
What antibiotic is given to treat diseases caused by clostridium perfringens?
Penicillin or metronidazole
What diseases are caused by clostridium difficile?
Antibiotic associated diarrhoea, leading to psuedomonas colitis
What antibiotics are given to treat diseases caused by clostridium difficile?
Oral vancomycin or metronidazole
What diseases are caused by mycobacterium tuberculosis?
Tuberculosis- primary, latent, and miliary
What antibiotics are given to treat diseases caused by M. tuberculosis?
What vaccine is given to prevent infection with M. tuberculosis?
What diseases are caused by mycobacterium leprae?
Tuberculoid and lepromatous leprosy
What is leprosy?
Non-caseating granulomas affecting nerve cells
What antibiotics are used to treat diseases caused by M. leprae?
What vaccine is given to prevent infection with M. leprae?
BCG vaccine offers some protection
Describe the nature of non-tuberculous mycobacteria
- Rapid or slow growing
Give an example of a non-tuberculous mycobacteria
Mycobacteria avium complex
What disease does M. avium complex cause?
Disseminated disease in AIDS patients
What diseases are caused by E coli?
- Most common cause of cystitis
- Regularly seen in GNS
- Some strains cause diarrheol disease
- Haemolytic urea syndrome (HUS)
What kind of disease is cystitis?
What strains of E coli cause diarrhoeal disease?
What strains of E coli cause haemolytic urea syndrome?
EHEC strains possessing O157 H7 antigens
What diseases does salmonella subtypes cause?
- Subtype typhi and parathyphi cause enteric fever
- Other subtypes cause diarrhoea
What disease does shigella cause?
What is the main symptom of dysentery?
What is the shigella toxin similar to?
The EIEC strain of E coli
What diseases are caused by klebsiella subspecies?
- Often seen in UTIs and HAI (hospital-acquired infections)
- Rare but classical cause of primary pneumonia
What disease is caused by proteus?
Common cause of UTIs
What is the result of UTIs caused by proteus?
Produces potent urease, which makes urine alkaline and predisposes to renal stones
What antibiotics are used to treat diseases caused by E coli, salmonella, shigella, klebsiella and proteus?
What diseases are caused by pseudomonas aeruginosa?
Opportunistic infection- wounds, burns, urinary tract, lungs (especially in cystic fibrosis)
What antibiotic is given to treat diseases caused by psuedomonas aeruginosa?
- Ciprofloaxin (resistant to most other oral antibiotics)
- IV gentamicin
What diseases are caused by haemophilus influenzae?
- Epiglottis in children under 5
- Acute exacerbations of COPD
What strains of haemophilus influenzae are associated with acute exacerbations of COPD?
What antibiotic is given to treat diseases caused by haemophilus influenzae?
- Cefotaxime sometimes needed for meningitis due to resistance
What vaccine is given to prevent diseases caused by haemophilus influenzae?
Capsular polysaccharide vaccine
What disease is caused by brucella subspecies?
Undulant fever (brucellosis)
How does brucellosis present?
Pyrexia of unknown origin (PUO)
What disease is caused by legionella subspecies?
Atypical form of bronchopneumonia and Pontic fever
What antibiotics are given to treat disease caused by legionella subspecies?
What disease is caused by vibrio cholerae?
What is the treatment for cholera?
- Oral rehydration therapy
What is the therapetic effect of tetracycline on cholera?
Shortens symptoms and duration of carriage
What disease is caused by campylobacter subspecies?
What is diarrhoea associated with campylobacter subspecies associated with?
Contaminated food and milk
What is the treatment for diarrheoa caused by infection with campylobacter subspecies?
Diarrhoea is self-limiting
If invasive, give erythromycin
What disease is caused by helicobacter pylori?
- Cofactor in pathogenesis of duodenal ulceration
- Associated with gastric cancer/ulcers
What antibiotics are used to treat direct disease caused by helicobacter pylori?
Where does bacteroides subspecies cause disease?
- The subspecies bacteroides fragilis found in lower gastrointestinal tract
- Most other subspecies found in mouth and upper respiratory tract
What diseases to bacteroides subspecies cause?
- Intra-abdominal infections
- Brain abscesses
- Dental sepsis
What antibiotic is used to treat diseases caused by bacteroides subspecies?
What antibiotic is bacteroides fragilis resistant to?
What disease is caused by treponema pallidum?
What antibiotic is used to treat disease caused by treponema pallidum?
What disease is caused by chlamydia subspecies?
- Chlamydia trachomatis can cause;
- Pneumonitis in newborn
- Cause of atypical pneumonias
- Pneumonitis in newborn
What antibiotic is used to treat disease caused by chlamydia subspecies?
- Tetracyclines and erythromycin
What diseases are caused by mycoplasma subspecies?
Mycoplasma pneumoniae is an important cause of atypical pneumonia
What is infection with mycoplasma subspecies associated with?
- Non-gonoccoal urethritis
- Pelvic inflammatory disease
- Joint and other post-infective inflammatory conditions
What antibiotic is used to treat disease caused by infection with mycoplasma subspecies?
Tetracycline or erythromycin
Why can't ß-lactams be used to treat disease caused by mycoplasma subspecies?
Because they have no cell wall