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Flashcards in Bacteria to know for Exam 2 Deck (27):
1

Chlamydia

  • Gram negative 
  • Obligate intracellular 
  • no muramic acid or peptidoglycan 
  • no carbohydrate metabolism
  • cause
    • chlamydia

2

Yersinia

  • Gram negative
  • Virulence factors
    • Endotoxin
    • live in phagocyte
  • mode of transmission
    • droplet
    • Flea is vector
  • Causes
    • Yersiia pestis causes plague (can be bubonic, pneumonic, or septicemic) 

3

Mycoplasma

  • Sterol instead of peptidoglycan
  • adhere to respiratory tract
  • Transmission
    • droplet
  • Cause
    • primary atypical pneumonia 
    • UTI- ureoplasma

4

Borrelia

  • Virulence factors
    • Axial filament
      • for motility
  • Vector
    • Ticks
  • Reservoir
    • Field mice
  • Disease
    • Lyme disease 
      • 3 stages
        • bullseye rash, arthritis, and neurological symptoms

5

Myobacterium

  • Causes:
    • Tuberculosis 
      • M. Boris, M. tuberculosis 
    • Leprosy
      • M. leprae
    • M. avium complex
      • pulmonary infection GI infection 
  • Virulence factors:
    • mycolic acid
    • escape phagocytosis 
    • Multi-drug resistance
  • Transmission
    • Droplet 
    • Prolonged exposure (leprosy) 

6

Clostridium

  • Gram positive
  • Virulence factors
    • Spore forming
    • neurotoxin (botulism and tetani)
  • Causes
    • C. tetani causes tetanus (rigid paralysis), c. botulinum causes botulism (flaccid paralysis)
    • C. perfringens causes gas gangrene
    • C. difficile causes diarrhea

7

Helicobacter

  • Gram negative
  • Virulence factors
    • fimbriae
    • urease 
      • converts urea to ammonia to CO2
    • flagella
  • Transmission
    • person to person
  • Causes 
    • Peptic ulcers

8

Lactobacillus

  • gram postive 
  • normal mirobiota of:
    • mouth, intestine, and vagina
  • cause:
    • dental carries
  • Produce H2Oin vagina 
  • found in yogurt

9

Listeria

  • Gram positive 
  • Virulence factors:
    • Reproduce in phagocytes
    • flagella 
    • grows in refridgerator
    • use host actin to propel cell to cell 
  • transmission
    • Food-borne
  • diseases Listeriosis 

10

Leptospira

  • Gram negative
  • Spirochete
  • Reservoirs
    • Dogs
    • Rats
    • contaminated drinking water
  • Causes
    • biphasic: aches, fever, meningitis, kidney/liver failure, and respiratory distress

11

Treponema

  • Gram negative
  • Spirochete
    • so have axial filament for motility
  • Transmission
    • Sexual
    • In utero
  • Disease
    • Syphilis 
      • 3 stages
        • ulcers
        • rash on palms and soles
        • gummas

12

Bacillus

  • Gram positive 
  • Virulence factors
    • Exotoxin
    • Capsule
  • Causes
    • Food poisoning- B. cereus 
    • Anthrax poisoning- B. Authracis 
      • ​anthrax is contracted via GI> Cutaneous> pulmonary)

13

Neisseria

  • Gram negative
  • virulence factors
    • Catalase
    • capsule
    • fimbriae
    • opa protein (prevents CD34 prolieration)
    • S pili (decoys)
  • Transmission
    • droplet
  • Causes 
    • gonorrhea 
    • meningitis

14

Klebisella

  • Gram negative
  • Virulence factors
    • Flagella 
    • Capsules
    • drug resistance
    • Nitrogen fixation
  • Causes
    • pneumoniae- K. pneumoniae

15

Campylobacter

  • Gram negative
  • Cytotoxin
  • Revervoirs
    • Water, food animals
  • Causes
    • Gastroenteritis- C. jejuni
    • Guillain barre syndrome 

 

16

Corynebacterium

  • Gram positive 
  • Virulence factors
    • AB toxin (inhibits host protein synthesis)
  • Transmission
    • Airborne
  • Disease
    • Diptheria- C. diptheiae

17

Pseudomonas

  • Gram negative
  • Virulence factors 
    • Drug resistant 
      • ​Efflux pumps
    • Flagella
    • opportunistic/nosocomial
  • Causes
    • swimmers ear
    • post burn infections
    • dermatitis
    • blue/green pus

18

Rickettsia

  • Gram negative
  • Virulence factors
    • Escape phagosome
  • Obligate intracellular pathogen
  • Vector
    • blood sucking anthropods (ticks)
  • Causes
    • Rocky mountain spotted fever 
      • rash on palm and sole 
    • typhus fever 
      • muscle aches

19

Bordetella

  • Gram negative
  • virulence factors
    • Capsule
    • pertussis toxin (inhibits protein syntheis)
    • tracheal cytotoxin (destroy epithelia)
  • Transmission
    • droplet
  • Causes
    • Pertussis/whooping cough (catarrhal, paroxysmal, convalescence stages)

20

Legionella

  • Gram negative
  • Virulence factors 
    • Hsp 60
    • invasion in alveolar macrophage
  • transmission
    • airborn
    • water
  • Causes 
    • legionnaires disease
    • pontiac fever

21

Salmonella

  • Gram negative
  • Virulence factors
    • Endotoxin
    • cytotoxin
  • Transmission
    • Food
  • Causes
    • Salmonellosis
    • Typhoid fever

22

Escherichia

  • Gram Negative
  • Virulence factors
    • Endotoxin
    • O antigen (LPS)
    • K antigen (capsule)
    • H antigen (flagella)
    • shiga toxin
  • Causes
    • Travelers diarrhea (gastroenteritis)

 

23

Vibrio

  • Gram positive
  • Virulence factors
    • Cholera toxin
    • adherence to intesintal mucosa
  • Causes
    • Cholera (ricewater stools)

24

Streptococcus

  • Gram positve 
  • S. pyogenes (group A):
    • causes:
      • Sore throat, scarlet fever, nephritis 
    • Transmission
      • Respiratory droplets
      • direct or indirect contact
  • S. agalactiae (group B) 
    • Cause
      • neonatal sepsis
  • Virulence factors:
    • Streptolysin O and S
      • Kill host leukocytes 
    • Capsules
      • attachment
    • M protein 
      • Attachment
    • Extracellular enzymes
      • break down host molecules
    • Strepokinases
      • Dissolve clots

25

Shigella

  • Gram negative 
  • Virulence factors
    • Shiga exotoxin
    • M cell invasion
    • rearrance host actin
    • avoid immune system 
  • Reservoirs
    • Humans
  • Cause
    • Bacillary dysentery (bloody diarrhea)

26

Staphylococcus

  • Gram Positive 
  • Virulence factors 
    • Coagulase
    • Exotoxin
    • Enterotoxin
    • Capsule
    • Biofilm
    • Drug resistance
  • S. aureus in normal flora
  • enterotoxin causes TSS

27

Enterobacter

  • Gram negative 
  • UTI and nosocomial infections- 
    • E. aerogenes