Bacterial Classifications Flashcards Preview

Microbiology > Bacterial Classifications > Flashcards

Flashcards in Bacterial Classifications Deck (88):
1

Streptococcus pneumoniae

Gram +
Diplococcus
A-hemolytic
Optochin sensitive
Anti-phagocytic polysaccharide capsule
Inflammatory O-acetylated peptidogycan-LTA

2

Streptococcus pneumoniae-diseases

Pyogenic pneumonia
Meningitis
Otitis media (middle ear infection)

3

Streptococcus pyogenes (group A strep)

Gram +
Cocci chains
B-hemolytic
Catalase -
Bacitracin sensitive
Virulence: hyaluronic acid capsule, induces anti-M antibodies recognizing heart (rheumatic fever), super antigen, cytolysin, C5a peptidase

4

Streptococcus pyogenes (strep group A)-disease

Pharyngitis (strep throat)
Skin impetigo
Streptococcal toxic shock syndrome
Rheumatic fever
Acute glomerulonephritis

5

Streptococcus pyogenes (Group A Strep) treatment

Penicillin
Azithromycin/erythromycin for patients with penicillin allergy

6

Staphylococcus aureus

Gram +
Clusters
B-hemolytic
Facultative anaerobe
Catalase +
Coagulase +
Virulence factors: cytolysins and super antigens

7

Staphylococcus aureus diseases

Boils
Pneumonia
Toxic shock syndrome (TSS)

8

Staphylococcus aureus treatment

MRSA: vancomycin or linezolid
Systemic infections: add IVIG and clindamycin (shut down toxic synthesis)

9

Escherichia coli

Gram -
Rod
LPS lipid A endotoxin

10

E. coli diseases

Gram - shock (fever and hypotension)
UTI
Diarrheas
Neonatal meningitis
LPS (fever and hypotension through TLR-4)

11

Causes of shock

Gram +: LTA-peptidoglycan
Gram -: LPS
Superantigen: cross-link MCH II molecules on APCs to variable part of the beta chain of the T chain

IL-1B fever and TNF-a hypotension from activated macrophages

12

Neisseria meningitidis

Gram -
Diplococcus
Obligate aerobe
Virulence factors: antiphagocytic polysaccharide capsules, pili for attachment, LPS

13

Neisseria meningitidis diseases

Meningitis
Sepsis (gram - shock) leading to DIC (disseminated intravascular coagulation)

14

Nieisseria meningitidis treatment

Rifampin
Vaccination to induce protective immunity against capsule

15

Vibrio cholera

Spirilla

16

Acid fast

Mycobacteria
Actinomycetes
Both show red

17

Silver stain

Legionella pneumophila
Stains lipids and proteins

18

Dark field microscopy

Spirochetes that are thin and don't gram stain

19

Prokaryotes

No nucleus
Polycistronic mRNAs
Minimal mRNA modification

20

Eukaryotes

Nucleus
Modified mRNAs
Transcription in nucleus
Translation in cyctoplasm
Active systems for nuclear export/import of macromolecules

21

Mycobacterium tuberculosis

Acid fast bacillus
TB
Intracellular pathogen of granulocytes and causes granulomas
Aerosol transmission
Drug cocktail

22

Mycobacterium tuburculosis treatment

Isoniazid
Ethambutol
Pyrazinamide
Rifampin
Streptomycin

23

Clostridium tetani

Gram +
Spore forming
Obligate anaerobic rods
Tetanus toxin: spastic paralysis

24

Clostridium botulinum

Gram +
Obligate anaerobes rod
Botulism by eating exotoxin protease
Prevents acetylcholine release
Flaccid paralysis

25

Antibiotics for TB

H isoniazid - pro
R rifampin
Z pyrazinamide-pro
E ethambutol

P p-aminosalicylate-pro
Ethonamide-pro
Cycloserine
Aminoglycosides, quinolones

26

Virulence factors of TB

ESAT-6 and CFP-10
Disrupt phagosomal maturation

27

MDR TB

Rifampin and isoniazid

28

XDR TB

Rifampin, isoniazid, quinolones, and any of the second line injectable drugs

29

Diabetes type I

T cell destruction of b-cells

30

MS

Th17 and Th1 destruction of myelin basic protein, myelin oligodendrocyte protein and proteolipid protein

31

RA

CD4 T cells produce inflammatory cytokines and result in macrophage activation and activation of osteoclasts that destroy the joint

32

Crohn's disease

CD4 T cells against gut microbiota, defect in NOD2 protein that results in anti microbial production to maintain demilitarized zone, loss of barrier and T cells become activated towards the microbes and release inflammatory cytokines leading to chronic inflammation
Treatment: glucocorticoid steroids, TNF - a inhibitors, block alpha4 integrin

33

Graves' disease

Autoantibodies targeting thyroid stimulating hormone receptor leads to constant activation and production of thyroid hormone

34

Myasthenia gravis

Autoantibody that attacks the acetylcholine receptors at neuromuscular junctions and causes weakness

35

Systemic lupus erythmatosis

Immune complexes precipitate in specific organs resulting in complement activation and chronic inflammation
- Ab against DNA, nucleosomes, DNA that leaks out is recognized by TLR9
- characteristic butterfly rash, similar to a type III hypersensitivity reaction

36

Type I hypersensitivity

Driven by IgE resulting in mast cell activation, classic allergies
Immediate

37

Type II and III hypersensitivity

Driven by IgG with a cell surface receptor in II or soluble Ag in III
II: IgG targeting Fc receptor on a mast cell and degranulation
III: complement and phagocytosis activation (serum sickness)
- Arthus reaction: Ab/Ag complexes activate leukocytes and induce inflammation and complement

38

Type IV hypersensitivity DTH

Th1 cells targeting soluble Ag and result in macrophage activation, allergic contact dermatitis, tuberculin reaction, nickel from jewelry

39

Type IV hypersensitivity

Th2 target soluble antigens and drive IgE production. Eosinophil and mast cell activation
Chronic asthma, allergic rhinitis

40

Type IV hypernsitivity

CTLs activated against cell associated Ag and results in cell cytotoxicity, graft rejection, poison ivy

41

Atopy

Predisposition to develop a Th2 response over a Th1 response with primary production of IgE
Atopic individuals develop multiple allergies over time

42

Type IV delayed type hypersensitivity

Insect venom, TB, lepromatous

43

Type IV contact hypersensitivity

Poison ivy, nickel, chromate,

44

Type IV hypersensitivity gluten sensitive enters patchy

Gliadin

45

Streptococci

Groups based on carbohydrates in the cell wall

46

Non-lance field strep

Strep pneumo: a-hemolytic, optichin sensitive
Viridans: normal oral flora, optichin sensitive, a-hemolytic

47

Diseases by group A strep

Strep throat
Scarlet fever
Impetigo
TSS
rheumatic fever
Acute glomerularnephritis

48

Diseases by group B strep

Neonatal sepsis
Meningitis
Pyogenic infections

49

Strep pneumo

Pneumonia, meningitis

50

Viridans

Dental caries, endocarditis

51

Rapid strep test

IgG based detection of A antigen

52

Group A strep virulence factors

M protein: antigenic similarity with myosin and recruits H factor to interfere with complement binding
Fibronectin binding protein
Hyaluronic acid capsule
IgG Fc binding proteins

53

Group A strep secreted virulence factors

Pyrogenic exotoxins super antigens
Streptolysin O pore forming and help in diagnosis
Streptolysin S pore forming necrotizing tissue damage
Streptokinase- activates plasminogen against plasmin
C5a peptidase

54

Strep group A delayed sequelae

Acute glomerularnephritis
Acute rheumatic fever M18 associated
PANDAS

55

Group B strep: s. agalactiae

Gram + cocci
B-hemolytic
Cat neg
9 serotypes based on capsular polysaccharides
Vaginal colonization with vertical transmission to baby

56

Group B strep virulence factors

Cell surface: capsule prevents opsonization through H factor
Fibronectin and ECM binding proteins
Secreted: C5a peptidases
Cytolysins
Superantigens

57

Group C and G strep

Pharyngitis and TSS

58

Group D strep (strep bovis)

Non heme or a hemolytic
Associated with gastrointestinal malignancy
Associated with endocarditis, UTI, and sepsis

59

Strep pneumo

Antiohagocytic capsule, pneumolysin
Cause pneumonia, meningitis, otitis media
Treatment: antibiotics and vaccination

60

Causes of meningitis

Neonates: group B strep, E. coli, listeria monocytogenes, strep pneumo, niesseria meningitis,
Young children: haemophilus influenza, strep pneumo, niesseria meningitidis
Older people: strep pneumo, niesseria meningitidis

61

Viridans

Alpha hemolytic, bacitracin and optichin resistant
Dental caries, endocarditis

62

Causes of infectious endocarditis

Viridans
Staph aureus
Enterococcus faecilis and facium (group D strep) (highly Ab resistant)

63

Corynebacterium diptheriae

Gram + in the same family as mycobacteria
Causes pharyngitis, tonsillitis, adenitis, malaise, some throat, fever, bull neck, grey white pseudomembrane (can cause suffocation)
AB toxin

64

Prevention and decline of diptheria
5 reasons

ID of toxin: enabled generation of the anti-serum to cure people with acute infections
Generation of the toxoid vaccine
Public health awareness
Antimicrobials

65

Staph aureus toxins

TSST-1, enterotoxin B and C, exfoliating toxin A and B (scalded skin syndrome)

66

mechanisms of transmission

Aerosol, direct contact, sexual contact, zoonotic, fecal to oral, food, endogenous, hospital acquired, vertical

67

Macular erythroderma

Flat red sunburn like, TSS

68

Papular bumpy

Chicken pox or small pox

69

Urticarial

Hives, type I hypersensitivity

70

Vesicular

Fluid filled small sacs

71

Bullous

Large fluid filled sacs
Scalded skin syndrome

72

Pustular

Fluid filled sacs with yellow, white, or green pus
Streptococcal impetigo

73

Petechial

Small rosé shaped spots due to blood vessel damage in gram neg infections, meningitis, don't blanch when you touch them

74

Purpurin

Purple rash due to blood leaving blood vessels

75

Escher

Floor burn like that will become a black scab
Bacillus anthracis

76

Maculopapular rash

Red bumps of scarlet fever

77

DTaP

Diptheria toxoid
Tetanus toxoid
Acellular pertussis

78

Staph aureus virulence factors

M protein, coagulate protein
Fibronectin binding protein
Laminin binding protein
Collagen binding protein
Vitronectin binding protein
Protein A

79

Staph aureus secreted virulence factors

4 hemolysins-cytolysins: a, b, g, d all beta hemolytic
Secreted cosgulase
Hyaluronidase
Staphykokinase
Lipase
DNases
RNases
Proteases

80

Staph aureus secreted toxins

TSSt-1(pathogenicity island): superantigen, cytokines storm
Staphylococcal enterotoxin: superantigen, cause vomiting and diarrhea
Staph exfoliative toxins A (bacteriophage) and B(plasmid): serine proteases that cleave desmoglein 1 in infant dermis-scalded infant syndrome

81

Signs of toxic shock

Fever over 102
Hypotension systolic <90
Rash macular erythroderma
Peeling of skin
3 multiorgan changes

82

Staph epi

Septicemia, endocarditis due to catheterization bio films
UTI associated with catheterization

83

Staphylococcus salrophyticus

UTIs

84

Staphylococcus lugdenensis

Endocarditis

85

Antigenic variation in niesseria spp.

Homologous recombination through gene conversion

86

Complication of influenza

TSS
Treatment with vancomycin, IVIG, respiratory support

87

Bacillus anthracis

Gram positive rod
Spore forming
Non motile
Not hemolytic
Medusa head colony appearance
Anthrax toxin: AB toxin either lethal or edema
Escher pustules

88

Bacillus cereus

Spore forming
Hemolytic
Non motile
Food poisoning
Enterotoxin: super antigen = vomiting
ADP-ribosylase = fluid loss from enterocytes and diarrhea