Bacterial Infections of Lower Respiratory Tract III Flashcards Preview

Micro Exam II > Bacterial Infections of Lower Respiratory Tract III > Flashcards

Flashcards in Bacterial Infections of Lower Respiratory Tract III Deck (55):
1

Mycobacteria characteristics

weakly gram positive
acid-fast rods
lipid rich cell wall

2

What is TB caused by

mycobacterium tuberculosis

3

What is the resevoir for mycobacterium tuberculosis

just humans

4

How is the TB spread

respiratory aerosol droplets

5

What are the TB disease states

primary TB
active TB
latent TB
reactivation

6

How does the immune system deal with Mtb

alveolar macrophages engulf it
recruits T and NK cells
some alveolar macrophages migrate to hilar lymph nodes

7

Latent TB infection

inability of immune system to kill Mtb
form a granuloma using CD4+, CD8+ and NK cells to prevent further spread

8

What are the symptoms of primary TB

asymptomatic

9

Who gets active TB

immunocompromised individuals

10

Who gets latent TB

it's what happens in most individuals

11

How does reactivation TB happen

more common in immunocompromised people. Basically you had latent TB and something happens and it gets reactivated

12

How is CMI important in TB

adequate control helps protect the body from TB
inadequate control ends up damaging the lung, and causes most of the damage

13

Disseminiated TB infection

known as miliary B or extrapulmonary TB
granuloma formation that occurs at any site in the body

14

Symptoms of active TB

weight loss, night sweats, cough, with little sputum production.

15

What are the symptoms of reactivation TB

same as active TB, but happens years after the individual was first infected

16

Can you spread TB when you are asymptamatic

yes

17

Ghon focus

lung lesion. can contain live Mtb

18

Ghon complex

lung lesion and calcification seen in an affected hilar lymph

19

Chest xray for tb will show

focal infiltration with cavitation
often in apical posterior segments of the upper lobes of both lungs

20

TB skin test (mantoux)

intradermal injection of PPDs which are dervied from Mt cell envelope
BCG-vaxed people will be positive

21

IFN-gamma realse assay for TB

what you do for patients who are BCG-vaxed

22

Ziehl-Neelsen/Kinyoun stains for TB

will confirm mycobacterial disease but isn't specific to TB

23

Nucleic acid amplification tests for TB

specific to TB, but is expensive

24

Culture for TB

not a great idea because it's slow and easy to contaminate

25

How do you treat TB

isoniazid, ethambutol, pyrazinamide and rifampin for 2 months, then 26 months of INH and rifampin

26

BCG-vax

for TB
administered overseas
not totally protective

27

What is the relationship between TB and AIDS

primary TB infection is MUCH greater in HIV infected people
reactive risk is way higher too

28

Mycobacterium avium intracellulare

complex of several mycobacteria
pulmonary infection resembling TB in immunocomprised pts

29

Mycobacterium kansasii

more common in elderly
seen in COPD pts

30

Haemophilis inflenzae B characteristics

gram negative coccobacillli
encapsulated

31

Epidemiology of HiB

mostly pediatric
transmission via respiratory droplets or direct contact with respiratory secretions

32

Virulence factors of HiB

LPS
IgA protease
PRP capsule

33

How do you treat HiB

severe cases - broad spectrum cephalosporin
less severe - amoxicillin

34

How can you prevent HiB

conjugate vaccine

35

What is acture bronchitis caused by

mycoplasma pneumoniae

36

What are the symptoms of acute bronchitis

dry cough

37

Bordetella pertussis characteristics

gram negative coccobacilli

38

Pathologity of bordetella pertussis

adhere to ciliated respiratory mucosa, multiply, produce toxic factors

39

What is the highest stage of infectability of pertussis

catarrhal

40

What are the symptoms of catarrhal stage of pertussis

rhinorrhea, malaise, fever, sneezing, anorexia

41

What are the symptoms of paroxysmal stage of pertussis

repetitive cough with whoops, vomiting, leukocytosis

42

What are the symptoms of convalescent stage of pertussis

diminished whoop cough, secondary complications (pneumonia, seizures, encephalopathy)

43

What are the symptoms of the incubation stage of pertussis

none

44

What are the 4 stages of pertussis

incubation, catarrhal, paroxysmal, convalescent

45

What are the virulence factors of pertussis

adhesions (filamentous hemagglutinin)
toxins (pertussis)

46

Why does the whooping cough happen

increased host cAMP, increase in respiratory secretion

47

How do you treat pertussis

supportive therapy,
macrolides (azithromycin, clarithromycin)

48

How do you prevent pertussis

vax with DTaP

49

What does a large amount of blood in sputum signal

TB or lung abscess

50

What does purelent sputum signla

typical pneumonia

51

What does scant, water, mucoid sputum signal

atypical pneumonia

52

What does rust colored sputum signal

streptococcus pneumoniae

53

What does thick, currant jelly like sputum tell you

klebsiella pneumoniae

54

What does foul smelling sputum signal

anaerobia bacterial pneumonia

55

What is the best treatment for hospital acquired pneumonia

ticarcillin and aminoglycoside