Bacterial sexually transmitted infections II Flashcards Preview

Year 1 Microbiology > Bacterial sexually transmitted infections II > Flashcards

Flashcards in Bacterial sexually transmitted infections II Deck (45):
1

How is syphilis acquired?

Direct contact of mucous membranes

2

How many people are infected with syphilis every year?

50,000

3

What is the causative agent of syphilis?

Treponema pallidum

4

Is treponema pallidum gram negative or gram positive?

Gram negative

5

What is the shape of treponema pallidum?

Spirochete

6

Is treponema pallidum sensitive or insensitive to oxygen?

Extremely sensitive

7

What kind of microscopy is used to visualize treponema pallidum?

Darkfield (or direct fluorescence Ab test)

8

How is the syphilis lesion described?

1. Painless ulcerated papule 2. Indurated (hardened)

9

When does secondary syphilis manifest?

2-8 weeks post-chancre

10

What are the symptoms of secondary syphilis?

1. Flu-like - sore throat, headache, fever, myalgia, muscle ache, anorexia, lymphadenopathy 2. Prominent skin lesions all over body - highly infectious 3. Possible raised lesions condylomata lata - in skin folds

11

How are condylomata lata lesions described?

Soft, flat, moist, pink-tan, papules and nodules

12

Gummas (granulomatous lesions) are indicative of what stage of syphilis?

Tertiary

13

What are symptoms of congenital syphilis?

Rhinitis and maculopapular rash developing after birth

14

What is the diagnosis for syphilis?

1. Darkfield / direct fluorescence microscopy 2. Ab detection / serology (most common) 3. Culture not available

15

What are nontreponemal tests for syphilis?

Measures antibody directed against cardiolipin

16

What are treponemal tests for syphilis?

Detect antibody specific to T. pallidum

17

If a patient with syphilis is treated and then administered a nontreponemal test, will it be positive or negative?

Negative (treponemal test will still be positive)

18

How is syphilis treated?

1. Penicillin 2. Doxycycline or azithromycin if allergic to penicillin

19

All patients with urethritis should be tested for what other infections?

Gonorrhea and chlamydia

20

What are some major symptoms of non-gonococcal urethritis in males?

Blood in urine or semen, dysuria, discharge from penis, pain with intercourse

21

What are some major symptoms of non-gonococcal urethritis in females?

Abdominal pain, dysuria, fever and chills, pelvic pain, vaginal discharge

22

What is the most common cause of non-gonococcal urethritis?

Chlamydia

23

What are the minor players involved non-gonococcal urethritis?

Mycoplasma genitalium and ureaplasma urealyticum

24

Do mycoplasma and ureaplasma have a cell wall?

No

25

What is contained in the plasma membrane of mycoplasma and ureaplasma?

Sterols stolen from host cell

26

Which bacteria have a fried egg appearance?

Mycoplasma

27

M. genitalium is resistant to what drug?

Doxycycline

28

Men with non-gonococcal urethritis (suspected ureaplasma) should be treated with what drug?

Doxycycline

29

Recurrent non-gonococcal urethritis in men should be treated with what drug?

Azithromycin or quinolones

30

What is the causative agent of chancroid?

Haemophilus ducreyi

31

Is haemophilus gram negative or gram positive?

Gram negative

32

What is the shape of haemophilus?

Pleomorphic coccobacillus

33

What is the oxygen requirement for haemophilus?

Facultative anaerobe

34

What is the catalase rating for haemophilus?

Catalase positive

35

What does haemophilus require for growth?

X and V factors

36

What is the presentation progression for H. ducreyi?

1. 5-7 days post exposure a tender papule with an erythematous base develops on genitalia or perianal area 2. Within 2 days lesion ulcerates and becomes PAINFUL 3. Inguinal lymphadenopathy commonly present

37

How is chancroid treated?

Macrolide: azithromycin, erythromycin

38

What is the diagnosis for H. ducreyi?

1. Slow growth on chocolate agar 2. Syphilis and HSV must be excluded

39

What is the causative agent of donavanosis / granuloma inguinale?

Klebsiella granulomatis

40

What is the gram staining for klebsiella granulomatis?

Gram negative

41

What is the shape of klebsiella granulomatis?

Rod

42

Is klebsiella granulomatis encapsulated?

Yes

43

What is the appearance of klebsiella granulomatis lesions?

Wartlike, painless, bleed easily (NOT ulcerated)

44

What is the diagnosis for klebsiella granulomatis?

1. Rule out other causes 2. Presence of Donovan bodies in pathological specimens

45

What is the treatment for klebsiella granulomatis?

Prolonged treatment with tetracycline, sulfamethoxazole, gentamycin, ciprofloxacin, or erythromycin