Flashcards in Bacterial sexually transmitted infections II Deck (45):
How is syphilis acquired?
Direct contact of mucous membranes
How many people are infected with syphilis every year?
What is the causative agent of syphilis?
Is treponema pallidum gram negative or gram positive?
What is the shape of treponema pallidum?
Is treponema pallidum sensitive or insensitive to oxygen?
What kind of microscopy is used to visualize treponema pallidum?
Darkfield (or direct fluorescence Ab test)
How is the syphilis lesion described?
1. Painless ulcerated papule 2. Indurated (hardened)
When does secondary syphilis manifest?
2-8 weeks post-chancre
What are the symptoms of secondary syphilis?
1. Flu-like - sore throat, headache, fever, myalgia, muscle ache, anorexia, lymphadenopathy 2. Prominent skin lesions all over body - highly infectious 3. Possible raised lesions condylomata lata - in skin folds
How are condylomata lata lesions described?
Soft, flat, moist, pink-tan, papules and nodules
Gummas (granulomatous lesions) are indicative of what stage of syphilis?
What are symptoms of congenital syphilis?
Rhinitis and maculopapular rash developing after birth
What is the diagnosis for syphilis?
1. Darkfield / direct fluorescence microscopy 2. Ab detection / serology (most common) 3. Culture not available
What are nontreponemal tests for syphilis?
Measures antibody directed against cardiolipin
What are treponemal tests for syphilis?
Detect antibody specific to T. pallidum
If a patient with syphilis is treated and then administered a nontreponemal test, will it be positive or negative?
Negative (treponemal test will still be positive)
How is syphilis treated?
1. Penicillin 2. Doxycycline or azithromycin if allergic to penicillin
All patients with urethritis should be tested for what other infections?
Gonorrhea and chlamydia
What are some major symptoms of non-gonococcal urethritis in males?
Blood in urine or semen, dysuria, discharge from penis, pain with intercourse
What are some major symptoms of non-gonococcal urethritis in females?
Abdominal pain, dysuria, fever and chills, pelvic pain, vaginal discharge
What is the most common cause of non-gonococcal urethritis?
What are the minor players involved non-gonococcal urethritis?
Mycoplasma genitalium and ureaplasma urealyticum
Do mycoplasma and ureaplasma have a cell wall?
What is contained in the plasma membrane of mycoplasma and ureaplasma?
Sterols stolen from host cell
Which bacteria have a fried egg appearance?
M. genitalium is resistant to what drug?
Men with non-gonococcal urethritis (suspected ureaplasma) should be treated with what drug?
Recurrent non-gonococcal urethritis in men should be treated with what drug?
Azithromycin or quinolones
What is the causative agent of chancroid?
Is haemophilus gram negative or gram positive?
What is the shape of haemophilus?
What is the oxygen requirement for haemophilus?
What is the catalase rating for haemophilus?
What does haemophilus require for growth?
X and V factors
What is the presentation progression for H. ducreyi?
1. 5-7 days post exposure a tender papule with an erythematous base develops on genitalia or perianal area 2. Within 2 days lesion ulcerates and becomes PAINFUL 3. Inguinal lymphadenopathy commonly present
How is chancroid treated?
Macrolide: azithromycin, erythromycin
What is the diagnosis for H. ducreyi?
1. Slow growth on chocolate agar 2. Syphilis and HSV must be excluded
What is the causative agent of donavanosis / granuloma inguinale?
What is the gram staining for klebsiella granulomatis?
What is the shape of klebsiella granulomatis?
Is klebsiella granulomatis encapsulated?
What is the appearance of klebsiella granulomatis lesions?
Wartlike, painless, bleed easily (NOT ulcerated)
What is the diagnosis for klebsiella granulomatis?
1. Rule out other causes 2. Presence of Donovan bodies in pathological specimens