Flashcards in Baker Family Assesment Deck (37):
What do robs symptoms suggest he has?
High blood sugar= can lead to diabetes
What is diabetes caused by?
Caused by not enough insulin to manage glucose levels or; when insulin is not effective enough because your body is ‘insensitive’ to insulin
What might be the cause of robs high glucose
He eats a lot of food and glucose could be building up
What does glucagon do?
Increase glucose levels
Where does insulin come from?
Secreted by beta cells in the islets of langerhans in the pancreas gland
Where does glucagon come from?
Secreted by alpha cells in the islets of langerhans in the pancreas gland
Glucose regulation feedback loop for high blood glucose?
S= Increased blood glucose levels
R= pancreas has islets of langerhan beta cells have chemoreceptors on them
M= beta cells in pancreas secrete insulin
E= all cells (protein S) , liver (glucogenesis) adipose tissue ( lypogenesis)
R= protein s, glycogenesis, translocation, lypogenesis
F= decreased blood glucose
Why might rob be feeling tired?
He has a high glucose level, which suggests that his pancreas is not producing sufficient insulin or is not reacting properly to it. His cells therefore won’t reviewed right amount of glucose that may be needed to produce energy.
What is the stimulus for stress feedback loop?
Stressful situation (flight/ fight)
Using energy to combat situation= low glucose level in blood
Receptor for stressful situations?
Sense receptors Eg. Photoreceptors audio receptors etc. in Amygdala which is responsible for emotions, survival instincts and memory
Modulator for stressful situations?
Hypothalamus which initiates release of adrenaline and cortisol.
nerve impulse (AND) -> adrenal medulla-> adrenaline
Hypothalamus-> ACTHRF -> Anterior pituitary gland
-> ACTH-> adrenal cortex -> cortisol
Effector during stressful situation?
Response to stressful situations?
During flight/ flight:
- increases heart rate
- increased cellular respiration = energy
- increased metabolism
- decreased digestion
- reduced immunity
Processes that increase glucose?
-Glycogenolysis ( glycogen-> glucose)
- lypolysis ( fat-> glucose)
- gluconeogenesis (protein-> glucose)
Feedback stage of stress feedback loop?
Therefore increased glucose levels in blood and increased energy production
Benefits of stress
- Warning system
- improve productivity and concentration
- fights tiredness and fatigue
Long term effects of stress?
- sleep problems
- Digestive problems
- heart problems and hypotension
What does elevated Thyroid stimulating hormone suggest?
Underproduction of thyroxine
Feedback loop for hypothyroidism?
S: Low levels of thyroxine
R: chemoreceptors in hypothalamus
M: hypothalamus-> TSHRF-> ant. Pit. Gland-> increases TSH
E: thyroid gland ( which is affected for whatever reasons)
R: unable to produce thyroxine
F: low levels of thyroxine
Cause of hypothyroidism?
- problems with thyroid gland by a persons thyroid or pituitary gland or hypothalamus
- lack of iodine in diet
- surgery removing part or all of gland
- hashimoto’s disease is a deficiency of iodine caused by an attack on the thyroid gland by a persons immune system
Treatment of hypothyroidism?
- increase iodine in diet
- thyroxine medication
- no cure and hormone tablets must be taken for rest of persons life
- thyroxine tablet
Why might Jill be feeling her symptoms?
She is on a diet which cuts out on all dairy products and calcium rich foods which are essential for: nerve impulse movement, bone strength and muscle contraction
Stimulus for calcium regulation ( low levels)
Low blood calcium levels
Receptor for low blood calcium?
Chemoreceptors in parathyroid gland
Modulator for low blood calcium levels?
Parathyroid gland releases parathormone
Modulator for high blood calcium levels?
Calcitonin is released by thyroid
Effectors for calcium regulation
Response made by effectors in low calcium levels feedback loop?
Bones: osteoclasts break down bone to release calcium
Kidneys: reabsorption of calcium is increased
Intestines: increased absorption of calcium
Response made by effectors in high calcium levels feedback loop?
Bones: osteoblasts build up bone using calcium
Kidneys: reabsorption of calcium is decreased
Intestines: decreased absorption of calcium
Feedback for low blood calcium levels?
Increased blood calcium levels
Feedback for high blood calcium levels?
Low blood calcium levels
Calcium is essential for...
What does follicle stimulating hormone do?
At the beginning of menstural cycle Low levels of estrogen and progesterone signal the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland to produce Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH) which Causing growth of ova. FSH begins the process of maturing a follicle.
When does oestrogen develop and what does it do?
FSH levels after a point begin to decrease and The follicle produces more estrogen.
What happens as oestrogen increases during the menstural cycle?
At ovulation, usually around Day 12 – 14, increased estrogen levels trigger a sharp rise in Luteinizing Hormone (LH) from the pituitary gland, causing release of the egg from the follicle.
What happens after oestrogen and LH spike?
The ruptured follicle (corpus luteum) then secretes progesterone and estrogen to continue to prepare the uterus for pregnancy