What are the three components of a nucleotide?
1. Pentose ring2. Purine or pyrimidine base3. One to three phosphates
What is a nucleoside?
A nucleotide that lacks a phosphate group.
What bond connects nucleotides?
What is a pentose ring?
A 5 atom ring with 4 carbons and an oxygen. Another CH2 and O are attached to the 4th Carbon.
What are the three uses of a nucleotide?
1. Information transfer2. Energy transfer3. Signal Transduction (i.e. cAMP)
What are 3 major nucleotides that can transfer energy?
1. ATP2. GTP3. NAD+
What is the general makeup of a purine versus a pyrimidine?
A purine is a 6 atom ring structure linked to a 5 atom ring structure. A pyrimidine is a 6 atom ring structure.
What are the differences between DNA and RNA?
1. 2' ribonucleotide oxidation2. RNA is more reactive3. Thymine vs. uridine4. DNA is confined to the nucleus, whereas RNA is found throughout the cell.
What are the different structures of DNA?
Primary: nucleotide chainSecondary: Antiparallel chainsTertiary: Double helixQuaternary: Nucleosome formed with histones.
what are palindrome sequences?
A DNA secondary structure in which a strand will fold over on itself.
What is a double helix?
A DNA tertiary structure formed by taking sheets of DNA and putting them into an aqueous solution. It allows access to the DNA at certain points depending on how tightly wound it is. Their are 3 forms, the A form, B form and C form.
What is a nucleosome
2.5 to 3.5 wraps of DNA around a histone.
What is mRNA
messenger RNA that is a template for the production of proteins
What is a transfer RNA?
It carries the amino acids to ribosomes and are responsible for putting the amino acids together to form polypeptide chains.
what is a ribosome RNA
It interacts with proteins and forms a structural backbone of ribosomes that form proteins.
What is a regulatory RNA?
It blocks production of proteins, regulates the cell cycle or can interact with different viruses to prevent infection.
What is an RNA structure?
A single stranded structure that is formed by transcription that mirrors the DNA contemplate structure except it replaces thymine with uracil.