Bales: Sagittal Brain and Cerebral topography and vessels (3/5) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Bales: Sagittal Brain and Cerebral topography and vessels (3/5) Deck (31):
1

What 2 symptoms can a pineal gland tumor cause and why?

1. upward gaze palsy (inability of both eyes to look upward) from the compression of the midbrain tectum containing eye control and reflex nuclei
2. hydrocephalus from the compression of the tectum closing off the cerebral aqueduct

2

What are the general properties of nuclei?

1. one or more afferents from other nuclei
2. one or more efferents from other nuclei
3. can have sub nuclei (ex left or right)
4. function to relay, modulated or change signals

3

What are the afferent and efferent pathways of the habenula?

afferent: stria medullaris carries limbic info from regions anterior of the thalamus to the habenula

efferent: habenulo-interpenduncular tract to the interpeduncular nucleus

4

What does the central sulcus divide?

The frontal and parietal lobes

5

What happens to the brain's structure in neurodegenerative diseases?

The gray matter is degenerated causing a widening of the sulci

6

Where is the primary motor cortex? What Brodman's area is it? What does the homunculus look like?

precentral gyrus (BA 4)
(homunculus=headless guy standing on the cingulate gyrus bending over holding his head by the hair (makes sense when you see the pic))

7

What is the primary sensory cortex?

post central gyrus (BA 3 (rostral), 2 (caudal), and 1).

homunculus is similar to motor but with larger face and genitals on the medial surface

8

where are the supplementary and premotor areas? what is their function?

Posteriormost superior and middle frontal gyri are the supplementary and premotor areas (BA6) for planning limb and body movements

9

Where is BA located and what does BA 8 do?

Posteriormost superior and middle frontal gyri are the supplementary and premotor areas (BA6) for planning limb and body movements

10

What are the 3 parts of the inferior frontal gyrus?

What is the significance of these areas?

posterior to anterior:
pars opercularis (BA44)
pars triangularis (BA45)
pars orbitalis (close to the orbit)

BA 44+45=Broca's area ==> directs speech production

11

What is the prefrontal cortex involved in?

higher functions (thinking, cognition, personality)

12

Where is BA 22? What is its function?

Superior temporal gyrus

It is the secondary auditory cortex

the posterior part of BA22 is Wernicke's area

13

What part of the parietal lobe do the sulci on the sides of the superior temporal gyrus lead to?

What is the function of these 2 areas?

the top of the lateral fissure is capped by the supramarginal gyrus (BA 40)

the angular gyrus (BA39) caps the superior temporal sulcus

14

Where are the transverse temporal gyri and the planum temporal located? What are their functions?

Transverse temporal gyri (Heschl’s; BA 41,42) are located on the superior aspect of the temporal lobe (floor lateral fissure)--> seen if the frontal and parietal lobes are removed

BA41=primary auditory cortex (surrounded by BA22--> secondary auditory cortex)


Planum temporale, posterior to Heschl's gyri, is involved in language processing

15

Where is the insular gyri located?

on the floor of the lateral fissure. covered by the frontal, parietal and temporal operculum

16

How many gyri commonly make up the insular lobe?

3 short insular gyri (anterior) and 2 long insular gyri (posterior)

17

What is the limen insulae?

Where the insula connects to other gray matter at its inferior angle

18

What is the limbic lobe composed of?

The cingulate gyrus and parahippocampal gyrus.

these are connected by a narrow isthmus

19

Where is precuneus?

it is the parietal lobe between the marginal rams and the parietal-occipital sulcus (seen in sagittal view)

20

What divides the occipital lobe? What BA is this region and what is its function?

the calcarine sulcus divides the cuneus (superior) and the lingual gyrus (inferior)

BA 17 surrounds the calcarine sulcus and is the primary visual area.

21

What other BAs surround BA 17? What are their functions?

BA 18 and 19 surround BA 17 in a mirror image in sagittal view) and are the secondary visual association cortex

they form concentric strips of the whole occipital region with 17 at the end and 18 and 19 moving anteriorly

22

What lobes make up the inferior surface of the brain?

Frontal lobe: orbital gyri and gyrus rectus (adjacent to the longitudinal fissure) (separated by the olfactory sulcus and bulb)

Temporal lobe (from medial--> lateral): parahippocampal gyrus, occipitotemporal gyrus and inferior temporal gyrus. The lingual gyrus is posterior to the parahippocampal gyrus

23

What are the 2 BAs on the parahippocampal gyrus?

BA 28 and the uncus (BA 34) which projects medially at the anterior end

involved in primary olfactory and limbic association

24

What is lissencephaly?

An abnormally smooth brain with fewer gyri

25

What is pachygyria?

thick, fewer than normal gyri

26

Where does the anterior cerebral artery run?

wraps dorsally around the corpus callosum in the longitudinal fissure

Supplies medial surface and corpus callosum as far as parieto-occipital sulcus

Branches extend out of the longitudinal fissure onto the lateral surface

branches into the callosomargial branch and the pericallosal branch at the genu

27

What areas does the ACA supply blood to?

corpus callosum, cingulate gyrus, superior frontal gyrus, and the paracentral lobule

28

What areas does the middle cerebral artery supply?

most of the lateral hemisphere including insula, opercular, auditory cortex and motor and sensory areas for upper limb and face

29

What are border zones? Why are they more susceptible to infarction?

Regions between cerebral artery terminal watersheds are called “border zones”.

More susceptible to infarction due to smallness of vessels and minimal anastomoses.

30

Where does the PCA run? What does the PCA supply blood to?

PCA courses posteriorly between the cerebrum and cerebellum

Supplies medial & inferior temporal lobe, medial & lateral occipital lobes

31

What vein drains the deep brain?

the great cerebral vein (of Galen) --> straight sinus