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Assess the potential causes and impacts of changes to the water balance within a tropical rainforest you have studied. [20]

Introduction: The water balance is the difference between the volumes and rates of inputs and outputs in a system. This balance can experience both natural and human induced changes, such as seasonal changes and in the case of the Amazon Rainforest, changes in precipitation and condensation patterns, and changes within the drainage basin itself
1) Deforestation impacts the convention system negatively. The removal of trees reduces evapotranspiration levels on a local scale which hinders the convection system on a wider, regional scale. An impact of this is the hindering of new growth in untouched areas as new trees and plantlets cannot grow in the drier atmosphere, so evapotranspiration levels are further reduced in a positive feedback loop. In October 2006, a drought no doubt enhanced by deforestation led to soil moisture levels dropping by 80% since 1997.
2) Climate change impacts the conventional system positively. The average increase by 0.8 degrees in global temperatures since 1850 means that evapotranspiration levels and the rate of convention processes in the atmosphere are increased, helping to counteract the damage done by deforestation on a local scale as atmospheric moisture levels are maintained. However, higher temperatures also means flash floods in cleared areas of the drainage basin will be more frequent as drier soils and increased precipitation means infiltration levels are reduced due to the increased impermeability of the drier soil, so not only impacting the water cycle but also the carbon cycle by draining the soil of nutrients.
3) The increasing use of hydroelectric power is also threatening to destabilise the equilibrium in the Amazon drainage basin. In 2010, 400 km2 of forest was flooded by the building of a hydroelectric dam. Not only do dams physically stop the natural channel flow within a drainage basin, so creating a new major terrestrial store in the regional cycle, but dams also restrict the flow of water down stream, so leading to droughts down river. An impact of this is the reduction in soil moisture levels and loss of vegetation which is crucial in intercepting precipitation. The loss of vegetation and the natural channel results in a smaller lag time as peak discharge is reduced in capacity, so flooding occurs, washing away topsoil which then further reduces channel flow down stream as sediment is deposited and the channel becomes shallower
Conclusion: It can be argued that cause to the water cycle in the amazon rainforest lead to negative impacts as changes in the cycle result in positive feedback loops being created. this deeply upsets the balance of in and outputs in the rainforest which have far reaching and long lasting effects.


For a distant place that you have studied,
assess the extent to which flows of people
have been important in developing the
character of this place. [20 marks]



‘The size of major stores of water change over time more because of human activity
than natural variation.’
To what extent do you agree with this statement? [20]



‘Sustainable approaches to coastal management will become more important than
traditional approaches in dealing with the impacts of climate change.’
To what extent do you agree with this view? [20]

Introduction: Agree. Sustainable approaches are strategies which use resources in such a way that future generations will have the same access to them as we do and still have a protected coast.
1) Agree: Sustainable approaches will become more important than traditional approaches in dealing with sea level rise
-On the Sefton coast,, a 17km-long stretch of sand dunes has been rejuvenated, meaning groynes will nto have to be put in place to protect Southport from sea level rise. While groynes and rock armour would have been effective in dissipating wave energy, the far more effective sea barrier in the form of a 4km wide sand dune system. this strategy will deaaling with climate change in a sustainable way by employing natural processes and creating a long term solution. (also creates natural habitats
2) Disagree (Agree) rock armour and sea walls are the only way of defending important port and coastal cities due to lack of space
3) Agree:


Assess the relative importance of weathering and erosion in the development of coastal landscapes.
[20 marks]

Introduction: weathering, that is sub-aerial processes which break down rock, can significantly impact the shape of a coastline by forming bays, detaching arches to form stacks and providing sediment for landforms of deposition downdrift. erosion does impact areas where hard rock is most prevalent, however, in terms of time scale, weathering has more far reaching effects.
1) Weathering leads to mass movement on the Holderness Coast. Heavy rainfall in storm events such as Storm Desmond in 2015 led to slumping which further expanded Bridlington Bay, where up to 10m of land is lost a year. this is far greater than the Holderness average of 2m a year, showing that weathering has a greater significance in changing the coastline's landscape.
2) Erosion is more effective in developing coastal landscape where the geology is made up of hard rock. In Flamborough Head, hydraulic action and cavitation is responsible for exploiting faults where well-jointed chalk has created weaknesses in the cliff face. this had led to the formation of a headland on the northern end of Selwicks Bay comprised of a stack. However, the formation of the stack relies on weathering such as freeze-thaw weathering which collapses the arch, so the formation of this landscape is partially reliant on weathering, meaning weathering is significant in developing coastal landscapes.
3) Chemical weathering is significant in shaping coastal landscapes as processes such as solution, carbonation or hydrolysis leads to the break down of hard rock such as chalk. Though chalk is reasonably resistant to erosion from the see, its calcium compounds are susceptible to breakdown by chemicals such as carbonic acid. This leads to weakening of rock before it even comes into contact with the sea, therefore determining the coastal landscape without the input of erosion. The tell tale marks or solution on the cliffs of Flamborough Head show how weathering is more significant in developing coastal landscapes than erosion.
Conclusion: Though erosion is often thought as the more important factor in changing the coastal landscape, weathering processes act in a much more rapid way, not only weakening rock which is subsequently exposed to the sea, but also by forming its own features, such as stacks and even bays by increasing the erosion rate from 2m to 10m of land a year


‘Transnational corporations (TNCs) are the most significant factor in creating unequal flows of people and money within global systems.’
With reference to a TNC, assess the extent to which you agree with this statement.
[20 marks]

Introduction: Though TNCs are responsible for creating unequal flows of money and sometimes people, inter-governmental trade agreements such as the TPP also result in unequal flows of people and money on a greater scale while other factors such as conflict and desertification also lead to huge inequalities in the movement of people and capital
1) The Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) creates unequal flows of people and investment between the USA and South-east Asian countries. These 12 countries are responsible for 40% of the global economic output, though the Trump administration claims the USA is not treated fairly and is not an equal beneficiary of the agreement. The agreement had also encouraged many migrants to go to the USA from Asia to find work, but with very few Americans or Canadians doing the opposite journey, the flow of people is as unequal as investment flows.
2) TNCs are also significant in creating unequal flows, with economic leakages from TNCs such as Apple in Ireland. In 2018, Apple was fined £12.4 billion for tax avoidance in Ireland, the base for its EU headquarters. Apple was responsible for creating an unequal flow of money by channelling revenue through various offshore accounts and sub-contracted companies to evade taxes. Apple also creates a smaller scale unequal flow of people by 'importing' American R&D workers to Ireland, with 5500 out of Apple's 6000 employees in Ireland not being Irish. However, when compared to immigration levels across the Pacific as a result of trading relations between North america and South-East Asia, Apple's unequal flows of people are negligible, with 1 in 20 Americans being able to directly link their heritage to migration from Asia within the last century
3) (SHOULD BE ABOUT TNCS AGAIN NOT ANOTHER FACTOR!) However, other factors are also significant in causing unequal flows of people and therefore migration, with historical colonialism still impacting flows today. The Indian diaspora is the largest one of its kind in the world, and as a result of this unequal flow of people, unequal flows of capital in the form of remittance payments. This flow of money leads to the leakage of money from local communities to communities abroad on a scale similar to TNCs when the millions of remittance payments are added up.
Conclusion: in this way, we can see that though TNCs are often blamed for creating unequal flows of people and money due to tax avoidance and 'importing' workers, other factors such as international trading zones and historical events such as colonialism and the spread of the English language can have far more extensive effects within global systems.


Assess the extent to which predicted climate change will present challenges for sustainable management of a local scale environment that you have studied. (20 marks)

-sustainable management of a local scale environment is the preservation of that environment for future generations
-predicted climate change will pose severe challenges on a local scale given that


"Climate change in the 21st Century means that the risks will outweigh the opportunities of people living on the coast."
With reference to a coastline beyond the UK you have studied, to what extent do you agree with this view? [20 marks]

Climate change is predicted to cause a minimum 69cm rise in sea levels by 2100 relative to 2000 levels and, at current emission levels, a 111 cm rise in sea levels by the end of the century. Climate change is also predicted to cause more severe storm events with the intensity and frequency of typhoons and storm surges predicted to increase. Erosional processes will also increase in rate as ocean pH will rise and weak rock will dissolve at a faster rate due to solution.
-Odisha Coastline
-East Norfolk (SMP 6)
-Holderness Coastline (Bridlington, Hornsea and Mappleton)


'The carbon and water cycles are essential to life on earth.' To what extent do you agree with this statement? [20]



'Humans are fully capable of using technology to reverse the effects of climate change.' To what extent do you agree with this statement? [20]



To what extent do you agree that time is important in the creation of coastal landscapes? [20]



To what extent can coastal management be sustainable? [20]



To what extent does the location of an earthquake affect the perception and effects of a hazard? [20]

Introduction: A hazard is a natural event that poses threat to human life and property, while location is the geographical positioning of a place. Location does have a significant effect, as well as the timing and of course scale and nature of the hazard. The Haiti 2010 and Kobe 1995 earthquakes are comparable because of their very similar hazard magnitudes of 7.0 and 7.3 respectively. The hazard recovery model (circular model) suggests location heavily affects perception of a hazard because of the time scales involved with media attention and the steps to recovery which are themselves affected by the location of the hazard
1) Location: Location does affect perception because location affects how well people can relate to hazard victims and to donations and media attention relies on this location. In Haiti, only $1 billion had been donated in the 12 months after the earthquake, while for Kobe, this figure was 3 times as high in just a quarter of the time scale. Both earthquakes occured in January, so the timing seems irrelevant, and because the media focused far more on the Kobe earthquake thanks to its location in an HIC and far more developed technology and research industry, people were more aware of the Kobe earthquake
2) Location: Haiti is located in the Western hemisphere while Japan is in the East, so both defy the general trend that the western hemisphere is more affluent while the east is less developed. Instead, perhaps another factor was responsible for people having different perceptions of the hazard. Haiti's predicaments were not all immediate, with diseases such as cholera and typhoid taking time to take full effect. Many more deaths occurred within the months and years after the earthquake, with 500,000 cases of cholera in the 10 months after the hazard event. According to the hazard recovery cycle, media attention follows the days and weeks immediately after the hazard event, so people were simply not aware of Haiti's growing problems over time while Kobe had an immediate threat and an immediate solution, unlike the slower, but more fatal developments in Haiti which evolved over time.
3) Location: Though Haiti claimed for many more lives than Kobe, at 230,000 deaths while the 1995 earthquake killed just over 5,000, so if donations given show evidence for people's perception of a hazard, then we should expect Haiti to have received more. However, the location meant that the fault line which produced this earthquake hit Haiti's capital, Port au Prince, so disrupting communications and damaging infrastructure so much that it took 3 weeks for international aid to establish a firm base, meaning by that time the general public was less interested with the media coverage of the earthquake, leading to disinterest from the media and so fewer donations. Haiti only received 73% of the funds it actually needed to cope with the humanitarian crisis while Kobe receive enough international as well as national aid to help cope with primary and secondary responses.
location is important and it does affect perception of place
. this is because location has a significant influence on media portrayal, which is itself heavily linked with the affected country's relationship with its neighbours and its international relationship. However, there is also the nature of the hazard involved and the development of issues to take into account. The dramatic fires caused by the Kobe earthquake generated quick and short-term media attention which brought in donations quickly, while Haiti faced a long-term struggle with disease, profound economic problems such as unemployment and further destruction due to tropical storms. The powerful influence of media means that for many people, media places are far more relatable than in the past, so the portrayal of an earthquake is key to its perception, which is in turn due to the place's location.


To what extent do you agree that safety can be ensured in multi-hazardous areas? [20]



Evaluate whether quantitative or qualitative data is more useful in understanding character of place using a near and far place you have studied. [20]

Intro: Character of place is made up of endogenous and exogenous factors which affect a place's feel and its makeup. Endogenous factors, such as the land use, location and physical geography can be shown quantitatively through statistics. Exogenous factors can also be measured quantitatively, exploring the figures relating to external factors affecting place, however here qualitative, that is non-numerical data, is also useful in determining and understanding external influences and their impact on character of place
2) Quantitative data exploring the endogenous factors of Welwyn Garden City (WGC) are useful in understanding the town's character because this data explains the town's layout and the built environment. Geological data shows the town lies on mainly chalk and flint while two chalk streams run to the north and south, restricting urban expansion. This data helps us to understand the town's increasing traffic congestion issues as the growing population is limited in its expansion locations, so population density increases. the impact on character is that local services are feeling more pressure, meaning the local population is feeling less well cared for through public services. However, quantitative data does not offer s this valuable insight- only qualitative data form interviews can show the true impact of a decline in the quality of services on the local population and their perceived character of place. therefore qualitative data is more useful
1) -Qualitative data is more useful than quantitative because for endogenous factors, only lived experiences can tell us how a place's proximity to other places is actually affects the character of places like WGC
-only 25 miles from London, quantitative impact is higher house prices, but qualitative data shows a greater sense of belonging and sense of importance to the town, which is not shown in house prices data
-though in this case, the town's proximity to the Capital has a significant impact on the place's character through its economic aspects, the value of the subsequent impact on people has a far greater impact on the character of place for them, as character of place is a qualitative measure of how people feel and experience a place, therefore meaning qualitative data is more useful
3) - In Tower Hamlets, quantitative data is very useful in understanding character of place as demographics data explains the borough's population dynamics and its influence on character
-a combination of demographic data and economic data shows that 41% of the borough's population is Bangladeshi and 73% non-British white in origin and in 2010 the area was classed as one of the 10% most deprived places in England
-this helps us to explain qualitative data for Tower Hamlets and makes for easier comparisons with other places
-however, in terms of character, the data does not tell us how the different cultures interact in the area and that, unlike the quantitative data suggests, is actually a major sources of income and is the area's biggest asset both economically and culturally
though quantitative data gives a good overview which explains a place's background, to explore character in depth, qualitative data is necessary


Assess the extent to which the experiences of people living in a place that you have studied have been affected by the development of the area’s infrastructure.[20]



‘Addressing socio-economic issues is more important than dealing with environmental challenges in the management of urban areas.’

How far do you agree with this view?
[20 marks]

Introduction: Socio-economic issues are difficulties surrounding the demographic of an urban population, including social segregation and ethnic diversity, and their economic situation, including the gap in incomes between rich and poor within an urban area. These are intrinsically linked to environmental challenges, such as air quality which often impacts the poorest the most. All of these are significant factors in the successful management of an urban area and its population.
1) Social segregation in Oldham:
Socio-economic issues pose a very significant problem for the management of Oldham borough in Manchester. Here, ethnic diversity and economic-driven resentment by the local population due to deindustrialisation of the area in the 1980s led to ethnically-focused riots in 2001 which pitted local Asian youths first against a gang of white BNP (British National Party) supporters and then the local police force. This issue was important because it led to the further ghettoisation of the Asian minority which isolated the group and led to increased resentment for the council and government. However, it was Oldham Borough Council that was responsible for segregating the Asian minority in the first place while the police failed to act properly and ended up increasing the violence when Asian youths were encircled alongside the BNP supporters. Though this issue had been developing over the last 20 years, its impact was very localised, unlike environmental issues such as air quality which affect many urban areas in the same way, regardless of location.
2) Tower Hamlets air quality, poverty and wealth gap:
In the London Borough of Tower Hamlets, the environmental challenges go hand in hand with socio-economic inequalities. This borough has the one of the highest wealth gaps in London, with the average wage being below the national average of £29,400, but having some of the highest earners in the whole of London, with the top 5% earning over £200,000 a year. These bankers live in luxury apartments situated on the Thames River Bank, where congestion from cars is reduced thanks to the new LEZ (Low Emission Zone) implemented there. North of the river though, where wages are at their lowest, pollutants generated from the higher traffic congestion levels increase the risk of pulmonary diseases and heart conditions dramatically, with NOx and SOx oxide gases affecting the poorest who have no choice but to live in less expensive, but more highly polluted areas. The issue for the local authority in this case is tackling both this social inequality as well as environmental problems which are affecting human health and disproportionally affecting less affluent people. New srategies put in place by the Mayor of London Sadiq Khan to encourage the use of public transport through advertisement campaigns and fare increase freezes have not yet been successful in targeting emissions in the City, but provide a longer-term plan of action which could start to tackle the social inequality in the area.
3) Wages gap in Notting Hill:
In Notting Hill, the wealth gap has led to more serious social issues in the past, as poverty led to the area being classified as 'criminal class' with 15% living in intense poverty in the 1990s. The subsequent devaluation in property value then led to gentrification in the south of the area while the north remained poverty stricken. Here gentrification did lead to the area rejuvenating itself and the reduction in littering and visible waste as social standard increased with affluence. However, in this case the poorest people were simply forced out of the area, forced leave as prices rose, moving this social issue further away and out of sight.
Plan: compare a socio-economic issue directly with an environmental challenge
Social segregation → Long-term sustainability
Poverty → Air quality (Urban Heat Island)
Crime and safety → Water safety and pollution (River restoration)


Assess the extent to which the demographic characteristics or patterns of social inequality are influenced by the built environment in both your local and your distant place. [20 marks]



'Human activity has caused irreversible damage to the fragile inter-relationship between the water and carbon cycles'. To what extent do you agree with this view? [20 marks]



With reference to a river catchment that you have studied, assess the potential impact of human activity upon the drainage basin. [20 marks]